Home
Shop

09036857618

THE KNOWLEDGE OF CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) AMONG STUDENT OF ABIA STATE UNIVERSITY

Compare

THE KNOWLEDGE OF CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) AMONG STUDENT OF ABIA STATE UNIVERSITY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

In December, 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases, who were later proven to be caused by a novel coronavirus (named as “2019-nCoV”), emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. By January 30, 2020, 9692 confirmed cases and 15,238 suspected cases have been reported around 31 prov- inces and cities in China. Among the confirmed cases, 1527 were severe cases, 171 had recovered and been discharged at home, and 213 died. Twenty-eight confirmed cases aged from 1 month to 17 years had been reported in China.

Coronavirus (CoV) belongs to the Coronaviridae family, Nidovirales order. CoVs are divided into four genera: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-coronavirus. α- and β-coronaviruses only infect mammals, whereas γ- and δ-coronaviruses mainly infect birds, with a few infecting mammals. Human CoVs include α-coronaviruses (229E and NL63), β-coronaviruses (OC43 and HKU1), the Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and 2019-nCoV. The 2019-nCoV belongs to the β-coronavirus genus, which includes bat-SARS-like (SL)-CoVZC45, bat- SL-CoVZXC21, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and 2019-nCoV.

Current studies have revealed that 2019-nCoV may originate from wild animals, but the exact origin remains unclear.

2019-nCoV infected patients are the main infection sources. However, we also should attach importance to asymptomatic cases which may play a critical role in the transmission process. Respiratory droplets and contact are the main transmission routes. Close contact with symptomatic cases and asymptomatic cases with silent infection are the main transmission routes of 2019-nCoV infection in children. People of all ages are susceptible to 2019-nCoV. The elderly and those with underlying chronic diseases are more likely to become severe cases. Thus far, all pediatric cases with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection were mild cases, and no deaths had been reported.

For standardizing the prevention and treament of 2019- nCoV infections in children, we called up an experts’ com- mittee to formulate this consensus statement. This statement is based on the Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards (the fourth edition) (National Health Committee) and other previous diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric virus infections.

Based on the current epidemiological data, the incubation period of 2019-nCoV infections ranges from 1 to 14 days, mostly ranging from 3 to 7 days. Current reported data of pediatric cases revealed that the age of disease onset ranged from 1.5 months to 17 years, most of whom had a close contact with infected cases or were family cluster cases. Infected children might appear asymptomatic or present with fever, dry cough, and fatigue, and few have upper respiratory symptoms including nasal congestion and running nose; some patients presented with gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.

Most infected children have mild clinical manifestations. They have no fever or symptoms of pneumonia with a good prognosis. Most of them recover within 1–2 weeks after disease onset. Few may progress to lower respiratory infections. No newborns delivered by 2019-nCoV infected mothers have been detected positive; and no newborn cases have been reported yet. It should be noted that clinical manifestations in pediatric patients should be further defined after collecting more pediat- ric case data. Furthermore, the number of confirmed infected cases will increase after a wide use of pathogen analysis.

Data from adults reveal that severe cases often develop dyspnea one week after disease onset. Severe cases may rap- idly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), septic shock, refractory metabolic acidosis, and coagulation dysfunction. Although no deaths in children have been reported up to now, the potential risk of death should be highlighted. Though clinical symptoms in pediatric patients are relatively milder compared with those in adult patients, ARDS and death cases also occurred in infected children during the SARS and MERS epidemics. Differential diagnosis should be made to distinguish from influenza virus, para-influenza virus, adenovirus, respira- tory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, SARS coronavirus, and other known viral infections, as well as mycoplasma pneumoniae and chlamydia pneumo- nia and bacterial pneumonia. The coinfection of 2019-nCoV with other viruses and/or bacteria should be considered in diagnosis. This study seeks to examine the knowledge and prevention of coronavirus (Corvid-19) among student of Abia state university.

1.2 statement of problem

Coronavirus disease spreads primarily through contact with an infected person when they cough or sneeze. It also spreads when a person touches a surface or object that has the virus on it, then touches their eyes, nose, or mouth.

Rural dwellers in West Africa are at risk of coronavirus because of proximity to animal reservoir, open construction of African villages, the practice of drying grains by road sides or outside homes and unprotected grain storage within homes. All these factors are known to facilitate increased rodent-man contact or contamination of food sources by infected rodent secretions.

For a highly contagious disease with  symptoms and signs that are similar to other endemic diseases, the creation of awareness amongst community members is very important in endemic areas. Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment.  Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.

The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol based rub frequently and not touching your face.

The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow).

At this time, there are no specific vaccines or treatments for COVID-19. However, there are many ongoing clinical trials evaluating potential treatments.

This study therefore, set out to assess the level of knowledge of coronavirus among students of Abia state university. Information gathered from this study will serve as a basis for enlightenment of the community on the causes, modes of transmission and more importantly, prevention of the disease.

1.3 Objective of the study

The main objective of this study is to examine the knowledge of causes and prevention of coronavirus (Corvid-19) among student of Abia state university. Specifically this study therefore, sought to:

  • Determine the awareness of coronavirus among student of Abia state university.
  • Ascertain the knowledge of transmission, risk factors , symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among student of Abia state university and the factors associated with knowledge of coronavirus
  • Determine the preventive practices against coronavirus among student of Abia state university.
  • 1.4 Significance Of The Study
  • The COVID-19 virus affects different people in different ways.  COVID-19 is a respiratory disease and most infected people will develop mild to moderate symptoms and recover without requiring special treatment. People who have underlying medical conditions and those over 60 years old have a higher risk of developing severe disease and death.
  • This study will impact the knowledge of transmission, risk factors, symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among student of Abia state university and the factors associated with knowledge of coronavirus.
  • 1.5 Research Question
  • The study attempt to answer the following research questions
  • What is the level of awareness of coronavirus among student of Abia state university?
  • What is the level of knowledge of transmission, risk factors , symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among student of Abia state university and the factors associated with knowledge of coronavirus?
  • What is the  preventive practices against coronavirus among student of Abia state university?
  • 1.6 Hypothesis of the study
  • The following hypothesis were formulated and tested
  • Ho: there is no significant relationship between Knowledge of Coronavirus and Socio-demographic Variables
  • H1: there is significant relationship between Knowledge of Coronavirus and Socio-demographic Variables
  • 1.7 Scope/Limitation Of Study
  • This study seeks to examine the knowledge of causes and prevention of coronavirus (Corvid-19) among student of Abia state university. It is therefore delimited to students of Abia state university and everyone within the university community.

Reviews

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “THE KNOWLEDGE OF CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) AMONG STUDENT OF ABIA STATE UNIVERSITY”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Quick Comparison

SettingsTHE KNOWLEDGE OF CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) AMONG STUDENT OF ABIA STATE UNIVERSITY removeTHE SUITABILITY OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN THE CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE SPREAD IN NIGERIA INDUSTRIAL DISEASES AMONG PRE-SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN (1-5 YEARS). removeEXTENT OF THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES removeEFFECTS OF OVERPOPULATION ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OWERRI MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF IMO STATE removeDEVELOPMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF EARLY MARRIAGE IN NIGERA: A STUDY OF UZO-UWANI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA removeEXAMINING HIGHER EDUCATION IN NIGERIA AS CORRELATES OF YOUTH PREPARATION FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP remove
NameTHE KNOWLEDGE OF CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) AMONG STUDENT OF ABIA STATE UNIVERSITY removeTHE SUITABILITY OF HEALTH EDUCATION IN THE CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASE SPREAD IN NIGERIA INDUSTRIAL DISEASES AMONG PRE-SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN (1-5 YEARS). removeEXTENT OF THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES removeEFFECTS OF OVERPOPULATION ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OWERRI MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF IMO STATE removeDEVELOPMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF EARLY MARRIAGE IN NIGERA: A STUDY OF UZO-UWANI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA removeEXAMINING HIGHER EDUCATION IN NIGERIA AS CORRELATES OF YOUTH PREPARATION FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP remove
Image
SKUprojectslib4786565460education42197education56415education749843b3bda459992education74837
Rating
Price3,000.003,000.00 2,500.003,000.003,000.00
Stock
Availability
Add to cart

Read more

Add to cart

Add to cart

Add to cart

Add to cart

Add to cart

DescriptionAbstract The paper discussed the causes, the suitability of health education in the control of communicable disease spread in Nigeria industrial diseases among pre-school age children (1-5 years). It focuses on the pre-school age children because of the existence of six killer diseases and the peculiarity of children's level of exposure to communicable diseases especially during the outdoor game. Recommendations were made on management and control of communicable diseases. These include public enlightenment, proper hygiene of food, the environment and the general body.ABSTRACT This research work was aimed at identifying the extent of the use of instructional materials in teaching Social Studies in Nsukka Educational Zone. This work was necessary because the success of any classroom teaching depends more on the extent of the use of teacher resources than verbalization. Three research questions were posited to guide the researcher in the study. These questions are: (1) What instructional media are available for Social Studies Instruction in Nsukka Education Zone? (2) To what extent are instructional materials used in Social Studies Instruction? (3) To what extent are different methods used in Social Studies lesson? Twenty-nine schools were sampled for this study. Instruments for data collection were questionnaire distribution schedule and checklist designed to elicit information from teachers. The data collected were analyzed based on mean scores and percentages. The information collected indicated that most of the resource materials are not available in schools, while some were available in some schools. The available materials were not adequately used. Based on these findings, recommendations were made which include that, teachers should be resourceful and use available teaching materials to make their lessons interesting thereby providing some motivation to the learners. Government should provide some money to schools to purchase the resources that the teachers cannot improvise. The researcher believes that if these recommendations are followed strictly, there would be much improvement in the teaching and learning of Social Studies in Nsukka Education ZoneABSTRACT This project is on Effects of overpopulation on the academic performance of students in government secondary schools in Owerri municipal council of Imo state. It is designed to identify the factors that contribute to the increase in students' population, find out the students - teacher ratio in government secondary schools and also the impact of the increase on the academic performance of students. A descriptive survey design was used, while the population of the study consists of government owned secondary schools in Owerri educational zone. A simple random sampling technique was used to select the four (4) schools out of the nine (9) schools in the zone. The four secondary schools selected have a total population of five thousand five hundred and thirty (5530) students and eighty (80) teachers. The sample size consists of five hundred and fifty four (554) students and eight (8) teachers. Data were represented in a tabular form. A closed format questionnaire with four points likert rating scale was used for data collection, and the mean score were used in analyzing the responses of the research questions. As a result of this research work it was found out that the students - teacher ratio in government secondary schools is between 55 - 60 students per teacher. Some recommendations were made, which include that the ministry of education should give quota on the students enrolment in government secondary schools in order to reduce the number of students per teacher, and infrastructural facilities should be provided to the schools in rural areas in order to avoid students' migration to the urban areas.ABSTRACT This research work explored the issue of early marriage in Nigeria. It shed light specifically on reasons behind its perpetuation, its harmful consequences, shows how it constitutes a barrier to education and enjoyment of human rights by girls and how it further threatens the development of the country. The findings from respondents and extensive reading of materials related to early marriage suggest that early marriage is due to various factors including among others, the search for economic survival, protection of young girls, peer group and family pressure, controlling female behavior and sexuality, wars and civil conflicts, socio-cultural and religious values. It is a violation of girls? human rights as it deprives her from freedom, opportunity for personal development, and other rights. It is also a developmental challenge for population pressure, health care costs and lost opportunities of human development. It is a barrier to girls? education as young girls drop out of school to get married which impacts negatively on the community as a whole and on the well-being of future generation. This practice stands in direct conflict with the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); such as the promotion of basic education, fight against poverty, the prevention of HIV/AIDS and reduction of maternal mortality rate in sub Saharan Africa and Nigeria in particular. To deal with the problem, a number of strategies have been suggested mainly for providing economic opportunities to young girls, promoting education of girls and using mass media to increase the awareness of the whole community about the consequences of early marriage on girls themselves, their family and on the community as a whole.CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background to the Study Higher education, as defined by National Policy on Education (1998) is the education given after secondary education in Universities, Colleges of education, Polytechnics, Monotechnics, including those institutions offering correspondence courses. The goals of tertiary education in Nigeria as spelt out by the policy are: to contribute to national development through high level relevant manpower training; to develop and inculcate proper values for the survival of the individual and society; to develop the intellectual capability of individuals to understand and appreciate their local and external environment; to acquire both physical and intellectual skills which will enable individuals to be self-reliant and useful members of the society; to promote and encourage scholarship and community service; to forge and cement national unity; and to promote national and international understanding and interaction. On the other hand, Schumpeter (1994) defines entrepreneurship as the ability to perceive and undertake business opportunities, taking advantage of scarce resource utilization. In simplest form, entrepreneurship is the willingness and the ability to seek out investment opportunities and to run an enterprise for profit. In this later sense, entrepreneurship takes premium over capital. It is equally more fundamental than capital because capital formation is the result of entrepreneurial activity. Entrepreneurs are therefore regarded as central figures in economic development. Their contributions run through labour actions, movement of capital goods and conversion of raw materials into finished products, and ultimately, effectual distribution of the products to final consumers. Entrepreneurs are therefore those who search and discover economic opportunities, marshal the financial and other resources necessary for the development of the opportunities, evaluate alternatives available in the environment and allocate resources to the most profitable ones as well as take the ultimate responsibility for the management and/or successful execution of opportunities. An Entrepreneur is somewhat comfortable with taking and assuming risks which are impassioned with the dream being pursued. He or she knows where to get help, and when it is needed as well as being ever ready to receive changes in the business surrounding environment (Schumpeter, 1994). Consequently, institutions of higher learning in Nigeria are expected to commence training high level manpower whose characteristics are usually obsessive, focused, articulate, and resourceful. In this way graduates will turn out typically charismatic leaders, and tend to be introspective in the skills of job creation, wealth generation and innovative skill utilization. Besides, empowering Nigerian youths towards wealth creation, employment generation, poverty reduction and value re-orientation (NEEDS, 2005) is a foremost cardinal point for strategic macro-economic framework. This also reflects in the recent increase in the demand for educational programmes in entrepreneurship in the country?s tertiary institutions, parastatals and non-governmental paradigms. If fully satisfied, this new vision and values would shine the spotlight on small medium scale business activities in Nigeria. Thus, increased higher education on entrepreneurial skills would create that perfect opportunity to stimulate economic growth. Higher institutions of learning are therefore to properly train individual youths who will have the right tools necessary to commence and grow successful businesses with reduced risk of failure. It is in this vain of activities that higher education contributes to human resource development in many ways. Investment in higher education therefore remains a key contributor to the nation?s economic growth. Higher institutions in Nigeria have been saddled with the main responsibility of training both youths and the nation?s professional personnel such as managers, scientists, engineers and technicians who participate in the development, adaptation and diffusion of innovations in the country. The development of higher education in the country is correlated with economic development. However, matching the quality of the products of institutions of higher learning in the country at present with the country?s higher educational laudable goals simply reveals that the Nigerian nation has not yet found her path on what was planned for it through higher education in terms of preparing the youths for entrepreneurship. It is against this background that this study examines the extent to which higher education in Nigeria has really succeeded in preparing youths for entrepreneurship and the world of work. Statement of Problem It is worthwhile to re-emphasize here that entrepreneurs and the small businesses they create are economic stimulators. Our country?s economic growth hinges on our ability to create new jobs through entrepreneurship, and successful entrepreneurship, in turn, requires well-trained graduates from our institutions of higher learning who are aspiring entrepreneurs willing to take the helm of venture creation. But the underpinning issue at this point still remains ascertaining whether the quality of education offered at present by tertiary institutions in the country is the one assuring the genuine preparation of young graduates for entrepreneurship and not for job seeking. The above issue of concern is predicated on the apparent hues and cry of many scholars (Tawari, 2002; and Okoroma, 2006) about the poor quality and falling standard of tertiary education in Nigeria, which is seriously incapacitating the system from producing the right type of graduates that suits the desired human capital needed for job creation and genuine economic growth and development in the country. This study therefore attempts to examine the extent to which higher education in Nigeria has prepared the youths for entrepreneurship. Purpose of Study The aim of this study includes the following: (i) To examine the extent to which university education influences the development of students? intellectual skill for entrepreneurship; (ii) To ascertain whether university education influences the development of students? affective skill for entrepreneurship; and (iii) To determine the extent to which university education influences the development of students? psychomotor skill for entrepreneurship. Research Questions In order to successfully achieve the above objectives, the questions below were raised to guide the study. (i) Has university education been influential to the development of students? intellectual skill for entrepreneurship? (ii) How relevant is university education to the development of students? affective skill for entrepreneurship? (iii) To what extent has university education been influential to the development of students? psychomotor skill for entrepreneurship? Research Hypotheses The hypotheses below were stated for the study. (i) University education has not significantly influenced the development of students? intellectual skill for entrepreneurship. (ii) University education has not significantly influenced the development of students? affective skill for entrepreneurship. (iii) University education has not significantly influenced the development of students? psychomotor skill for entrepreneurship. Significance of the Study ? This study is significant for providing relevant information on the need to improve on higher education towards proper preparation of undergraduates for the world of work. ? It will also be a sensitization document to undergraduates and anybody who accesses it on the paramount importance of going for entrepreneurship skills development education programmes to acquire relevant skills that will enable one survive in a depressed economy. ? The results of the study are also meant to create a high level of awareness among prospective graduates on the relevance of entrepreneurship education. ? The study is also significant for articulating the need for education planners and Nigerian tertiary institutions? authorities (private and public) to direct effort at inculcating courses for entrepreneurship development skills into tertiary institutions? curricula and programmes. Scope of the Study This study focused on examining higher education in Nigeria as correlates of youth preparation for entrepreneurship. It was limited to determining the extent to which Nigerian higher education programmes have influenced the development of the intellectual, affective and psychomotor skills of youths for entrepreneurship. The study was limited to institutions of higher learning in Lagos State. Besides, only two hundred students sampled from these institutions were involved in the study. Definition of Terms The terms below were operationally defined relative to their usage in the study. Entrepreneur: This is a motivated person who seeks profits by undertaking such risky activities as starting new businesses, creating new products, or inventing new ways of accomplishing tasks. Entrepreneurship: This is the creative ability or skills of individuals to seek profits by taking risks and combining resources to produce innovative products. University Education: This is the education given after secondary education in universities, including those institutions in the universities offering graduate and post graduate correspondence courses.
ContentTHE KNOWLEDGE OF CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) AMONG STUDENT OF ABIA STATE UNIVERSITY CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the study In December, 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases, who were later proven to be caused by a novel coronavirus (named as “2019-nCoV”), emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. By January 30, 2020, 9692 confirmed cases and 15,238 suspected cases have been reported around 31 prov- inces and cities in China. Among the confirmed cases, 1527 were severe cases, 171 had recovered and been discharged at home, and 213 died. Twenty-eight confirmed cases aged from 1 month to 17 years had been reported in China. Coronavirus (CoV) belongs to the Coronaviridae family, Nidovirales order. CoVs are divided into four genera: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-coronavirus. α- and β-coronaviruses only infect mammals, whereas γ- and δ-coronaviruses mainly infect birds, with a few infecting mammals. Human CoVs include α-coronaviruses (229E and NL63), β-coronaviruses (OC43 and HKU1), the Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and 2019-nCoV. The 2019-nCoV belongs to the β-coronavirus genus, which includes bat-SARS-like (SL)-CoVZC45, bat- SL-CoVZXC21, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and 2019-nCoV. Current studies have revealed that 2019-nCoV may originate from wild animals, but the exact origin remains unclear. 2019-nCoV infected patients are the main infection sources. However, we also should attach importance to asymptomatic cases which may play a critical role in the transmission process. Respiratory droplets and contact are the main transmission routes. Close contact with symptomatic cases and asymptomatic cases with silent infection are the main transmission routes of 2019-nCoV infection in children. People of all ages are susceptible to 2019-nCoV. The elderly and those with underlying chronic diseases are more likely to become severe cases. Thus far, all pediatric cases with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection were mild cases, and no deaths had been reported. For standardizing the prevention and treament of 2019- nCoV infections in children, we called up an experts’ com- mittee to formulate this consensus statement. This statement is based on the Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards (the fourth edition) (National Health Committee) and other previous diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric virus infections. Based on the current epidemiological data, the incubation period of 2019-nCoV infections ranges from 1 to 14 days, mostly ranging from 3 to 7 days. Current reported data of pediatric cases revealed that the age of disease onset ranged from 1.5 months to 17 years, most of whom had a close contact with infected cases or were family cluster cases. Infected children might appear asymptomatic or present with fever, dry cough, and fatigue, and few have upper respiratory symptoms including nasal congestion and running nose; some patients presented with gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Most infected children have mild clinical manifestations. They have no fever or symptoms of pneumonia with a good prognosis. Most of them recover within 1–2 weeks after disease onset. Few may progress to lower respiratory infections. No newborns delivered by 2019-nCoV infected mothers have been detected positive; and no newborn cases have been reported yet. It should be noted that clinical manifestations in pediatric patients should be further defined after collecting more pediat- ric case data. Furthermore, the number of confirmed infected cases will increase after a wide use of pathogen analysis. Data from adults reveal that severe cases often develop dyspnea one week after disease onset. Severe cases may rap- idly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), septic shock, refractory metabolic acidosis, and coagulation dysfunction. Although no deaths in children have been reported up to now, the potential risk of death should be highlighted. Though clinical symptoms in pediatric patients are relatively milder compared with those in adult patients, ARDS and death cases also occurred in infected children during the SARS and MERS epidemics. Differential diagnosis should be made to distinguish from influenza virus, para-influenza virus, adenovirus, respira- tory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, SARS coronavirus, and other known viral infections, as well as mycoplasma pneumoniae and chlamydia pneumo- nia and bacterial pneumonia. The coinfection of 2019-nCoV with other viruses and/or bacteria should be considered in diagnosis. This study seeks to examine the knowledge and prevention of coronavirus (Corvid-19) among student of Abia state university. 1.2 statement of problem Coronavirus disease spreads primarily through contact with an infected person when they cough or sneeze. It also spreads when a person touches a surface or object that has the virus on it, then touches their eyes, nose, or mouth. Rural dwellers in West Africa are at risk of coronavirus because of proximity to animal reservoir, open construction of African villages, the practice of drying grains by road sides or outside homes and unprotected grain storage within homes. All these factors are known to facilitate increased rodent-man contact or contamination of food sources by infected rodent secretions. For a highly contagious disease with  symptoms and signs that are similar to other endemic diseases, the creation of awareness amongst community members is very important in endemic areas. Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment.  Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness. The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol based rub frequently and not touching your face. The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow). At this time, there are no specific vaccines or treatments for COVID-19. However, there are many ongoing clinical trials evaluating potential treatments. This study therefore, set out to assess the level of knowledge of coronavirus among students of Abia state university. Information gathered from this study will serve as a basis for enlightenment of the community on the causes, modes of transmission and more importantly, prevention of the disease. 1.3 Objective of the study The main objective of this study is to examine the knowledge of causes and prevention of coronavirus (Corvid-19) among student of Abia state university. Specifically this study therefore, sought to:
  • Determine the awareness of coronavirus among student of Abia state university.
  • Ascertain the knowledge of transmission, risk factors , symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among student of Abia state university and the factors associated with knowledge of coronavirus
  • Determine the preventive practices against coronavirus among student of Abia state university.
  • 1.4 Significance Of The Study
  • The COVID-19 virus affects different people in different ways.  COVID-19 is a respiratory disease and most infected people will develop mild to moderate symptoms and recover without requiring special treatment. People who have underlying medical conditions and those over 60 years old have a higher risk of developing severe disease and death.
  • This study will impact the knowledge of transmission, risk factors, symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among student of Abia state university and the factors associated with knowledge of coronavirus.
  • 1.5 Research Question
  • The study attempt to answer the following research questions
  • What is the level of awareness of coronavirus among student of Abia state university?
  • What is the level of knowledge of transmission, risk factors , symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among student of Abia state university and the factors associated with knowledge of coronavirus?
  • What is the  preventive practices against coronavirus among student of Abia state university?
  • 1.6 Hypothesis of the study
  • The following hypothesis were formulated and tested
  • Ho: there is no significant relationship between Knowledge of Coronavirus and Socio-demographic Variables
  • H1: there is significant relationship between Knowledge of Coronavirus and Socio-demographic Variables
  • 1.7 Scope/Limitation Of Study
  • This study seeks to examine the knowledge of causes and prevention of coronavirus (Corvid-19) among student of Abia state university. It is therefore delimited to students of Abia state university and everyone within the university community.
CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction Back Ground of the study School health services are those services provided in schools by health educator; nurses, physicians; dentist and other health related workers like guidance counselors and social workers to health appraise, promote and protect the health of pupils and that of the personnel. Johnson (1991) observed that school health services are procedures established to: appraise the health status of pupils and school personnel, counsel pupils, parents and others concerning appraisal findings, carryout follow-up services, provide emergency care for injury or sudden illness,help prevent and control communicable diseases and encourage the correction of remedial defects. School health services are designed to determine the physical and emotional status of pupils, to prevent diseases and to secure the cooperation of parents and pupils, for correcting defects and maintenance of health (Mshelia, 1999), in contributing to the concept of school health services, Akinbile (1998) stated that school health services contribute to those school activities directly concerned with the present health status of the school child. Nwana (1988) regretted that what is referred to as school health services in Nigeria may be described as a farce while Kane (1997) noted that although special clinics were established for the welfare of pre-school children, the same cannot be said of the health of school children. Negligence of the school health services can be attributed to the unfounded assumption by Nigerians that once a Nigerian child attains school age be becomes immune to diseases. In Nigeria, Abiodum (1996) conducted a survey of 500 pupils aged between five and fifteen years in a small rural community and seventy five percent (75%) were found to suffer from mental morbidity, disturbances of emotional and conduct disorder constituted sixty seven percent (67%) of the total morbidity rate detected which made him to emphasize the need for a more functional school health services. The most basic functional aspect of school health services is the health appraisal of pupils. According to Freeman (1999), health appraisal involves the continuous and close observation of the school child and the teacher, while Turner, Bandall and Smith (1990) viewed health appraisal of pupils? health as a means that ensures, professional advice to pupils and their families on personal health as well as advice to the school on the adaptation of the school programme to the needs of pupils. Health appraisal should include dental inspection, screening tests for vision, hearing and speech, medical examination, health history and teacher?s observations. According to Tahir (1997), the population of Nomads in Nigeria is 9.3 million and that, out of the estimated population of 9.3 million nomadic people in Nigeria, 3.1 million are children of school age. In the view of Mshelia (1999), these nomadic children of school age do not enjoy good health for a long period of time because of the prevalence of numerous communicable disease, they suffer from multiple infestations and infections. Consequently, the morbidity rate is high among them and the major causes according to him are communicable diseases resulting from poor environmental conditions. Malnutrition, injuries and lack of general health supervision were also implicated in the high morbidity rate. Mshelia (1999) further stated that if school health programmes in nomadic primary schools were vigorously pursued, the incidence of high morbidity rate among school pupils would have been minimized to the barest minimum. From the foregoing, the present study is designed to evaluate the school health programme in nomadic primary schools in Southwestern Nigeria. 1.1 Statement of the Problem The health of primary school pupils is a matter of universal concern as children are the most precious assets any nation can have as their well-being reflects the future of the nation. The school age is a period in which the child undergoes rapid physical and mental development and this calls for a functional school health programme if the overall development of the child is to be achieved. Experts have revealed that nomadic primary school pupils at various times have suffered from communicable diseases, infections, injuries leading to death as a result of tetanus infection, dental caries, rashes, ill equipped first aid boxes for emergency care, reported cases of epidemics resulting from poor environmental conditions. Nomadic school pupils have not shown a high level of positive healthful practices and attitudes, which school health service is aimed to achieve. ISSN Mshelia (1999) asserted that the life expectancy of nomadic children is low due to high death rates, as they do not enjoy good health for a long period of time because of the prevalence of numerous communicable diseases. But if school health programmes in nomadic primary schools are adequately provided for and vigorously pursued, absenteeism in schools as well as high morbidity rates among pupils of nomadic primary schools would be minimized if not completely eradicated. However, from the foregoing, this study is set to evaluate the school health services in nomadic primary schools in Southwestern Nigeria. 1.2 Objectives of the study To create an environment in which countries and their international and national partners are better equipped, both technically and institutionally, to reduce morbidity death and disability through the control, eradication or elimination of these diseases as appropriate. To upgrade health education in Nigeria 1.3 Significance of the Study Since the establishment of the National Commission for Nomadic Education, available records show that the school health services component of the organization programme of activities has not been evaluated. It is envisaged therefore, that the outcome of this study will bring to light areas in the school health services in nomadic primary schools in Southwestern Nigeria that need intervention from the stakeholders (Federal, State, Local Government and Nomadic Communities) to improve on areas where there are lapses for a better school health services. The outcome of the study would also serve as a source of reference material to people who may be interested in similar areas of study in future. 1.4Research Hypotheses The following hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance: 1. Health appraisal is not significantly available for pupils in nomadic primary schools in Southwestern Nigeria. 2. Health guidance and counseling is not significantly available for pupils in nomadic primary schools in Southwestern Nigeria. 3. Follow-up services are not significantly available for pupils in nomadic primary schools in Southwestern Nigeria. 4. Emergency care and first aid is not significantly available for pupils in nomadic primary schools in Southwestern Nigeria. 5. Control of communicable diseases is not significantly carried out in nomadic primary schools in Southwestern Nigeria. 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. Does good health in Nigeria lead to effective crisis management in Owerri West. 2. Is it proper to invite a third party in setting crisis in Owerri West. 3. What are the roles of staff motivation towards crisis management 1.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY This research work in carried out in Nigeria and as a result it is limited from other countriesCHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background of the Study There is no single universal definition of Social Studies because the subject is defined according to the need of each society, which adopts it as a programme of study in schools and colleges. However, the Committee on Primary School Social Studies programme in Nigeria defines Social Studies as those common learning of man?s interaction with his social and physical environment, adding that it is not only a study, but a way of life, of how man influences, and is influenced by his physical, social, political, economic, psychological and cultural environment (Aina, Adeyoyin, Obilo. and Ahmadu, 1982) Similarly Olaniyan (1998) emphasized that Social Studies is a programme which a society uses to instill in students the knowledge, skills, attitudes and actions it considers important concerning the relationship which human beings have with each other, their world and themselves. Bearing in mind the concept of Social Studies as an integrated discipline, the objectives are clearly stated in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004). The primary concerns of the subject are encouragement of the awareness of the world in the child, inculcation and development of appropriate knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and social activities concerning relationships in people; to enable them find solutions to social problems in their surroundings and to develop positive attitudes towards our fellow men in society. Social science as the teaching and learning of individual subjects such as History, Geography, Government, etc. has finally given way to the conception in Social Studies as an integrated subject This came about in fact with the adoption in 1975 of the Integrated Social Studies Syllabuses developed by the National Educational Research Council fortheprimary schools and Teacher Training Colleges throughout the country at the on-set of the Federal Government University Free Primary Education (UPE). Similarly, the Integrated Social Studies Syllabus currently being used in the lower forms of secondary schools in the country as well as the one for the 3-3 Secondary School system of the New Education Policy was prepared by the Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC), University of Lagos (Ogunsanya, 1984). Social Studies is a subject which deals principally with how human beings interact with one another and with the environment. The Committee on Social Studies singled it out as one major area of study through which national objectives on education in Nigeria can be achieved. Specifically, the Committee spelled out the underlisted objectives for teaching Social Studies in the primary and secondary school levels of the Nigerian education system: 1. To encourage the development of social responsibility towards other children, adult and the world. 2. To encourage the development of values, attitudes, skills and understanding necessary to live and function in society. 3. To create an awareness and an understanding of the evolving social and physical environment as a whole, its natural, man-made, cultural and spiritual resources together with national use and conservation of these resources for development 4. To ensure the acquisition of that relevant knowledge which is an essential prerequisite for personal development, as well as a positive personal contribution to the betterment of mankind. 5. To develop in children a positive attitude to citizenship and a desire to make a personal positive contribution to the creation of a progressive and united Nigeria. 6. To develop in the children the ability to think critically and reflectively and come to an independent conclusion. 7. To promise an understanding of the social problems facing the Nigerian society and a desire to find solutions to them (Ogunsanya, 1984; Obeta, 1996; and Enem, 2002). The objectives of Social Studies Education in Nigeria, as stated above, show that the subj ect was introduced into the school curriculum to, among other things, get rid of certain social vices plaguing the Nigerian society. Such vices include tribalism, ethnicity, nepotism, political instability, mass poverty, immorality, drug abuse, disrespect for elders and so on. Social Studies also meet the needs of the society in the areas of social and intellectual skills as well as attitudes and values. The subject is also concerned with acquiring the desirable information in order to be able to achieve meaningful development in all sectors of the economy (Ogunsanya, 1984). The summary of our discussion clearly indicates that Social Studies education is central to nation building. Our leaders and policy-makers need to acquire desirable social and intellectual skills, as well as positive attitudes and values that will enable them to make positive contributions to the process of nation building. They need to appreciate the economic and socio-political diversities of Nigeria, and the need for unity, tolerance and inter-dependence among the various component units of Nigeria. To achieve the above objectives, the subject must be properly taught in our schools. One major characteristic of good teaching of Social Studies is the ability to inculcate in students a spirit of curiosity and self-instruction (Enem, 2002). A great deal has been discovered about what attracts the interest of children, holds their attention and fosters that natural curiosity. Enem (2002) opined that nothing attracts learners? attention faster than the use of relevant resource materials. For example, bright, contrasting colours seem to stimulate them as well as seize their attention. Similarly, interesting shapes and objects are also very important, especially at the lower levels of our education system. The use of adequate and relevant resource materials has numerous advantages. For example, it facilitates teaching and learning, and makes learning faster and more permanent. Teachers do not need to expend a great deal of energy or time in giving out much information or much guidance. Rather, he guides the pupils to find out or discover things on their own. For instance, if a picture of a boy eating a banana is shown to the class and the caption of the picture is: ?This boy is eating his banana?, the teacher could ask his class ?Where do you think the banana came from??. A question such as this forces the pupils to look at the picture critically and study it for contextual clues. Where is the boy standing? (Market, Farm or School?) What has he been doing? What are the commonest ways through which boys obtain banana? In Social Studies, resource materials encourage the pupils to think critically and reflectively about their lives and their surroundings. This helps to build up the students? self esteem and confidence. In addition, resource materials arouse the students? interest on the subject. We all know that interest motivates learning. Social Studies teachers should make effective utilization of instructional materials in teaching because, they make teaching more meaningful, interesting and more permanent. The extent teachers make use of instructional materials in the teaching of Social Studies is not known. Therefore, the need arises for a determination of the extent teachers use instructional materials in teaching Social Studies at the Junior Secondary Schools (JSS). Statement of the Problem Experience shows that many teachers of Social Studies have been teaching for years without using teaching resources and without encouragement by the government. Abdullahi (1982) pointed to poor method of teaching as one of the major factors that cause the poor performance of students in science subjects. Obi (1992) asserted that teachers have resorted to verbalizing their lessons relying heavily on the use of chalkboard, otherwise called ?talk chalk? method of teaching. Those views are in agreement with Mayer?s (1988) that teaching in the African context continues to be dominated by talk and chalk method. This poor method of teaching could be one of the reasons of underachievement of students in Social Studies. There have been many researches directed at evaluating the extent of the use of instructional media in teaching Social Studies. For instance, researchers like Onyekwelu (1995), investigated Availability and Use of Media in Teaching History in Secondary Schools in Anam bra State. Angwe and Idogbe (2004) investigated the Availability and Use of Biology Lab Equipment in the Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools in Vandeiky a L.G. A. of Benue State. Onuoha (1999) investigated on Students? Perception of Television Religious Programmes in Imo State. Eze and Iloh (1999) researched on Resources Used in Teaching Christian Religious Knowledge in the Junior Secondary School at Nsukka Urban. Agu Emeka (1995) investigated the Status of Media in teaching and learning of Economics in Enugu- North L.G.A. Ukachukwu (1998) researched on Effect of Overlay Technique on Secondary School Students? Achievement in Biology. Using good diagrams, Winn (1982) Projected and Non-projected media; Nwizu (1992), Multimedia Approach; Obi (1992), Different Modes of Picture Presentation (Ofoegbu, 1992). The problem of the study therefore, is the extent of the use of instructional materials in the teaching of Social Studies in Nsukka Education Zone. Purpose of the Study The major purpose of the study is to determine the availability and the extent of use of instructional materials in teaching Social Studies in JSS in Nsukka Education Zone. In order to achieve this major purpose, certain specific investigations will be undertaken. These include: 1. To determine the type of instructional materials available for use in schools in Nsukka Education Zone in teaching Social Studies. 2. To establish the extent of use of the available instructional materials for Social Studies lessons. 3. To identity methods used in teaching Social Studies in the schools. Significance of the Study The findings of this study will be beneficial to the Social Studies teachers in Nsukka Education Zone. It will provide information on the available media which they can use. It will also be beneficial to the curriculum planners. It will help curriculum planners to determin e the type of instructional materials available for use, establish the extent of use and identify methods used in teaching Social Studies in the schools. This is with a view to determining instructional materials to be included in the curriculum of the JSS Social Studies and that of the Teacher Training Colleges. It may provide the justification for emphasizing the teaching of improvisation to trainee teachers in the Colleges. The results of the study will provide information on the available modes for Social Studies instruction. This will be very useful to ministries of education and policy makers by providing them with data on the materials that needed to be acquired for effective Social Studies instruction. The extent of use of these materials will enable the Post Primary School Board to organize workshops, conferences and seminar on the production and use of instructional materials to facilitate the learning of Social Studies. The results of the study will provide information that may be useful for research in this area. Scope of the Study The study is limited to the availability and use of instructional materials in teaching Social Studies in JSS in Nsukka Education Zone. It also includes a determination of the teaching methods teachers adopt in Social Studies instruction. Research Questions The following research questions have been formulated to guide the study: 1. What instructional materials are available in schools for Social Studies instruction in Nsulika Education Zone? To what extent are instructional materials used in Social Studies instruction? What different methods are used in Social Studies lessons?CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background of the Study This project is on Effects of overpopulation on the academic performance of students in government secondary schools in Owerri municipal council of Imo state. According to the Federal Ministry of Education, as at 2004, the population of Nigeria secondary schools stood at one hundred and eighteen thousand, two hundred (118200) secondary schools while that of Imo state showed a total number of two hundred and five (205). Owerri Municipal council had about seven (7) secondary schools, with a population of Seven thousand, six hundred and fifteen (7615) students. This figure when compared with that of 1999 which was inclusive according to Federal Ministry of Education was very high because during that period, it was so in order to attract Federal Government attention. The present Nigerian population of secondary schools going by the above number is almost twenty one thousand, eight hundred and twenty eight (21828) secondary schools, with Imo state having three hundred and twelve (312) secondary schools and Owerri Municipal 9 government secondary schools. According to the statistics department, Secondary Education Management Board (SEMB), there has been a rapid increase in the population of students in Owerri Education zone from seven thousand, six hundred and fifteen (7615) students to ten thousand, five hundred and seventy (10570) students. There is a constant increase in the population of secondary schools which runs contrary to the new encyclopedia Britannica, volume (A) assertion. Unlike population of insects, population rarely has been subject to explosive or collapsing numbers. Overpopulation refers to a situation where the total number of people in an area exceeds the available resources. Overpopulation can also be defined as deficiency in resources development in relation to the available people Osuji (2008). This means existing resources can not march the immediate population number. Evidence has shown that the population of students in urban schools is on the increase. The steady areas to enjoy recreational facilities, which keeps them busy after studying is one of the factors that contributes to overpopulation of secondary schools in urban areas. Under population of secondary school in Nigeria has had a negative impact in the Nigeria educational sector, and the output is devastating in terms of loss of standard and its attendant results. This situation of over population could be speculated to be speculated to be responsible for the untold hardship, corruption, social disorder, poor standard of living, crime etcetera. In this, there will be lower standard of education, inadequate instructional materials, production of poor or a few quality text books, congested classrooms and attendant education in characters (dropout as a product of the so called schools). Statement of the Problem Over the years, there has been an increase in the population of students in urban secondary schools. This has been consistent, without the attendant increase in facilities, teachers and infrastructure, etcetera. With the decline in the quality of education and output, it therefore becomes imperative to find out whether the increase in population of students' directly affect their academic performance and identify the causes of increase in population of students in government secondary schools in Owerri educational zone and what could be done to remedy the situation. Purpose of the Study The main purpose of the study is to ascertain the impact of overpopulation on academic performance of government secondary students specifically, the study intends to: 1. Identify the students - teacher ratio in government secondary schools. 2. Identify the causes of increase in students' population in government secondary school. 3. Find out the impact of the increase in students population in government secondary schools on the academic performance of students. 4. Make recommendations on how to curtail increase in students' population. Significance of the Study This study will be of immense benefit to students, teachers, educational planners, government and society at large. For the students, it will motivate and increase their willingness to attend school and help improve their performance in school. To the teachers, it will help improve abilities of the teacher to manage the classroom efficiently because reduction in the number of students encourages teacher - students' relationship and leads to effective and efficient academic performance. To the education planners, it will be a guiding material to enable them check the population of students in relation to the available schools to accommodate them. To the government, it will serve as a guide to identify the need to improve the infrastructure available for teaching and learning. The study will be of great significance to the society at large as it will help produce qualified citizens that will contribute positively to the growth of the society and it will also serve as a resource and reference material to future students. Research Questions For the purpose of carrying out this research, the researchers pose the following questions: (1) What is the student - teacher ratios in government secondary schools? (2) What are the causes of increased students' population in government secondary schools? (3) What are the impacts of the increase in population of students in government secondary schools on the academic performance of the students? Scope of the Study This research work is restricted to only government secondary schools in Owerri Municipal Council. The secondary schools are:
  • Government secondary school Owerri
  •  Comprehensive Development secondary school Owerri
  • Emmanuel college Owerri
  • Government technical college Owerri
  • Ikenegbu Girls' secondary school Owerri
  • Holy Ghost college Owerri
  • Owerri girls' secondary school
  •  Urban development secondary school Owerri
  • Boys' secondary school New Owerri
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background to the Study Birth, marriage and death are the standard trio of key events in most people?s lives. But only one ?marriage? is a matter of choice. The right to exercise that choice was recognized as a principle of law even in Roman times and has long been established in international human rights instruments. Yet many girls, and a smaller number of boys, enter into marriage without any chance of exercising their right to choose. Some are forced into marriage at a very early age. Others are simply too young to make an informed decision about their marriage partner or about the implications of marriage itself. They may have given what passes for ?consent? in the eyes of custom or the law, but in reality, consent to their binding union has been made by others on their behalf. The assumption is that once a girl is married, she has become a woman - even if she is only 12. Equally, where a boy is made to marry, he is now a man and must put away childish things. While the age of marriage is generally on the rise, early marriage - marriage of children and adolescents below the age of 18 is still widely practiced. While early marriage takes many different forms and has various causes, one issue is paramount. Whether it happens to a girl or a boy, early marriage is a violation of human rights. The right to free and full consent to a marriage is recognized in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and in many subsequent human rights instruments - consent that cannot be ?free and full? when at least one partner is very immature. For both girls and boys, early marriage has profound physical, intellectual, psychological and emotional impacts, cutting off educational opportunity and chances of personal growth. For girls, in addition, it will almost certainly lead to premature pregnancy and childbearing, and is likely to lead to a lifetime of domestic and sexual subservience over which they have no control (Eboh, 1996). Early marriage before the age of 18 is a violation of a number of international human rights charters and conventions such as 1989 Convention on The Rights of the Child (CRC), 1979 Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEFADW), the 1989 African Charter on Human and Peoples? Rights, and the 1990 African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of Women. However, for many young girls in developing countries, marriage is perceived as a means of securing their future and protecting them. Girls are forced into marriage by their families while they are still children in the hope that marriage will benefit them both financially and socially. On the contrary, early marriage violates the rights of children with often more negative consequences on the girls than the boys. This compromises their overall development, leaving them socially isolated with little or no education, skills and opportunities for employment and self -realization. These conditions ultimately make married girls more vulnerable to poverty. Young married girls are indeed a unique group, coming under great pressure on a number of fronts. They are required to do a disproportionate amount of domestic chores, which includes new roles and responsibilities as wives and mothers. The young bride?s status in the family is frequently dependent on her demonstrating her fertility-often within the first year of her marriage at a time when she is not yet physiologically, psychologically and emotionally prepared. Additionally, girls are made to be responsible for the care and welfare of future generations while still children themselves. Young mothers with no decision making powers, restricted mobility and no economic resources are likely to transmit this vulnerability to their off-springs. Therefore, early marriage directly compounds the ?feminization of poverty? and intergenerational poverty (Saxena, Shobha, 1999). Several studies confirm wide age gaps between younger married girls and their spouses. This age gap clearly creates unequal power relationship between the younger brides and her older and more experienced husband, resulting in husband having total control over sexual relations and decision-making. Since younger brides are socially conditioned not to question the authority of their husbands, they are often unable to use contraception or to plan their families. The combined effect of these factors may also make younger brides more likely to tolerate partner violence. While there is widespread agreement that early marriage, early pregnancy and motherhood adversely affects general development and education of girls and they are the links with poverty and wide consequences on families and communities have not been adequately explored. This is partly due to the ?invisibility? of younger married girl in most communities, and the fact that marriage confers adult status to girls and boys (Bruce, 2002). Yet, many societies, primarily in Africa and South Asia, continue to support the idea that girls should marry at or soon after puberty. Their spouses are likely to be a few years older than they are, but may be more than twice their age. Parents and heads of families make marital choices for daughters and sons with little regard for the personal implications. Rather, they look upon marriage as a family-building strategy, an economic arrangement or a way to protect girls from unwelcome sexual advances. Meanwhile, tradition and culture endorse the concept of early marriage, the 1999 Nigerian constitution is silent on the issue, although it could be implied from the provisions of section 29 that parties to a marriage must be of full age. Under subsection 29(4)(a), ?any woman who is married shall be deemed to be of full age?. On the other hand, subsection (4)(a) stated that ?full age? means the age of eighteen years and above. Thus, in spite of that section of Nigerian constitution, early marriage still poses a problem in most part of Nigeria, as in many other countries in Africa and beyond. It is practiced and justified in the name of tradition, culture and religion. That was why some people like the former governor of Zamfara state, Alh. Ahmed Sani Yerima Bakura and Mmerole Ogha the husband of Mgbeoye got married to a 13 and 9 year old girl respectively. Especially vulnerable are young girls in rural areas, poor, and deprived communities. This situation reflects the relatively strong adherence to tradition, and the relative lack of opportunities affecting women in rural areas. In Nigeria in general, and among Northerners (Hausas) in particular, early marriage dates back to the formation of the society itself. In that part of the country, it is not uncommon for girls below the age of 12 to get married, and it is going beyond the expectation unlike in other parts of the country. The National Baseline Survey of Positive and Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Girls in Nigeria 1999 revealed that the aggregate mean age at marriage for female children is 16.7 years. In the north-east the age is 15.2 years and in the north-west, 14.2 years. This is an indicator of the prevalence of early marriage in Nigeria (Shehu, 2002). Statement of the Problem Despite national laws and international agreements forbidding early marriage, this phenomenon is still widespread in many developing countries with a high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa, more particularly in Nigeria. This paper intends to analyze that issue by emphasizing on this region of Africa (Nigeria) using Uzo-uwani as a paradigm. According to UNICEF (2001), 40 per cent and 49 per cent of girls under 19 in central and West Africa respectively are married compared to 27 per cent in east Africa and 20 percent in northern and southern Africa. Throughout the world, marriage is regarded as a moment of celebration and a milestone in adult life. Sadly, the practice of early marriage gives no such cause for celebration. All too often, the imposition of a marriage partner upon a child means that a girl?s or boy?s childhood is cut short and their fundamental rights are compromised (UNICEF, 2001 and Lefevre, Quiroga and Murply 2004). Young girls are robbed of their youth and required to take on roles for which they are not psychologically or physically prepared for. Many have no choice about the timing of marriage or their partner. Some are coerced into marriage, while others are too young to make an informed decision. Premature marriage deprives them of the opportunity for personal development as well as their rights to full reproductive health and wellbeing, education, and participation in civic life. Literature identifies many interrelated factors almost similar worldwide with small variations between societies that interact to place a girl child at risk of early marriage. Those factors include among others, search for economic survival, protection of young girls, peer group and family pressure, controlling female behavior and sexuality, wars and civil conflicts, maximization of fertility where infant mortality is very high (the working group 2000; UNICEF 2001; Mathur et al. 2003). Early marriage contributes to a series of negative consequences both for young girls and the society in which they live. It is a violation of human rights in general and of girl?s rights in particular. For both girls and boys, early marriage has profound physical, intellectual, psychological and emotional impacts; cutting off educational and employment opportunities and chances of personal growth. In this research work more emphasis is given to girls as this is an issue that impacts upon them in far larger numbers and with more intensity and consequences. Besides, having a negative impact on girls themselves, the practice of early marriage also has negative consequences on their children, families, and society as a whole. UNICEF (2000) argues that it is not only girls that pay for early marriage but also the society as a whole. Population pressure, health care costs and lost opportunities of human development are just a few of the growing burdens that society shoulders because of teenage pregnancies. Early marriage also undermines international efforts to fight against poverty in developing countries. Bunch (2005), makes it clear that the widespread practice of child marriage makes it increasingly difficult for families to escape poverty in the developing world, thereby undermining critical international efforts to fight poverty, HIV/AIDS and other development challenges, and making billions of dollars in development assistance less effective. Among the problems of early marriage in Nigeria is Vesico-Virginal Fistulae (VVF) which remains a serious reproductive health problem for women of childbearing age in the developing world. It is one of the most appealing misfortunes that a woman can face as a result of early pregnancy and childbirth. High maternal mortality and morbidity is another problem posed by early marriage. The world health organization estimates that the risk of death following pregnancy is twice as great for women between 15 and 19 years than for those between the ages of 20 and 24. The maternal mortality rate can be up to five times higher for girls aged between 10 and 14 than for women of about twenty years of age This study should then seek to find answer to the following questions on developmental implications of early marriage in Nigeria. Research Questions What are the reasons behind early marriage perpetuation in Uzo-uwani local government area? Does early marriage affect girls? wellbeing and constitutes a violation on their human rights in Uzo-uwani local government area? Does early marriage hinders development in Uzo-uwani local government area. Does early marriage leads to poor development in Uzo-uwani local government area. Objectives of the Study This research work is basically focused on developmental implications of early marriage in Nigeria, therefore, at the end; it is expected that we could be able to ascertain or proffer the causes and the developmental implications of early marriage in Nigeria and to proffer lasting solutions to minimize it. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study are as follows: To identify the reasons behind early marriage perpetuation in Nigeria using Uzo-uwani local government as a paradigm. To identify how it affect girls? wellbeing and constitute a violation of their human rights in Uzo-uwani local government area. To investigate the consequences and developmental implications of early marriage in Uzo-uwani local government area. To recommend ways of ameliorating the developmental implications of early marriage in Uzo-uwani local government area.Significance of the Study The significance of this study cannot be overemphasized because this invaluable research work will be of tremendous impact on existing knowledge about developmental implications of early marriage in Africa and Nigeria in particular. Thus, the outcome of this work will portray a vivid idea of peoples? perceptions and impressions on early marriage in Nigeria. It will also be of great importance to ideal administrators and sociologists. The lessons that will be learnt from this study will be helpful to government in enacting and implementing policies and programmes that will impede the menace of early marriage in the country. Furthermore, the ideas in this work will help immensely in implementation and meaningful decisions and policies on developmental implications of early marriage as it affects girl child and the entire society. On the other hand, the findings and recommendations of this research work will help tremendously to restore adequate dignity, rights and values of girl child in Nigeria especially in Uzo-uwani local government council. Last but not the least, this invaluable work will be of great significance in the sense that people should know that early marriage is not a solution to the search for economic survival, protection of young girls, peer group and family pressure, controlling female behavior and sexuality, and socio-cultural and religious values but it is a violation of girl?s human rights as it deprives her of freedom, opportunity for personal development, and other rights. This work will also be of academic, administrative and social assets to all Nigerians. Scope and Limitations of the Study The research work is expected to cover developmental implications of early marriage in Uzo-uwani local government area. This work covers the period of 1990 till date. It will touch some vital events on early marriage which took place in Nigeria and in Uzo-uwani in particular within the stated period. The limitations of this work include the following: Finance/fund: this was the greatest limitation or hindrance the researcher encountered on the course of this work. A lot of fund was needed to carry out this work perfectly, such as transport fare, lobbying for interview, feeding, e.t.c as a student, it becomes very cumbersome. Time: time cannot be over emphasized when talking of limitations of this study because it was one of the major hindrances the researcher faced during this study. Thus, this work is one of the courses/works or activities that needed equal attention of the researcher. Furthermore, the researcher being a regular student, he had the engagements to attend such as reading, going to lectures, going for recreation and so many other assignments that equally claim a substantial part of time available to him. Yet it is not exaggeration to say that not less than 40% of his available time was spent on this invaluable study. Respondents: although the researcher got a good percentage of responses to his interview or questions, it was not easy per say for him to convince then (respondents) that the study is merely on academic exercise due to the high level of illiteracy among the people of the area in the sense that majority of their representatives/functionaries does not know the particular year the council was created talk more of knowing the land mass and the population of the council and such recorded data. Thus, in spite of the above limitations, the researcher could be able to achieve his objectives by prioritizing this study to other of his activities because of time, using of interpreters on respondents because of high rate of illiteracy and effective and efficient use of the little resources in his possession. Meanwhile data collection went smoothly in spite of the above challenges, presumably because the interviewers were hired/recruited locally and known to the respondents.
WeightN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
DimensionsN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Additional information
Back to Top
Select the fields to be shown. Others will be hidden. Drag and drop to rearrange the order.
  • Image
  • SKU
  • Rating
  • Price
  • Stock
  • Availability
  • Add to cart
  • Description
  • Content
  • Weight
  • Dimensions
  • Additional information
Click outside to hide the comparison bar
Compare
×