ABSTRACT Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â This survey research conducted to find out the effect of broken homes on primary school pupils academic achievement in Jere Local Government Area. Two objectives and three research questions where formulated to guide the study. The population of the study consist of all the senior pupils in four selected school in Jere Local Area. Through the process of simple random sampling a total number of 100 pupils were selected to participate in the study. The major instrument used for collecting data was a questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed through the use of simple percentages. It was discovered based on the analysis that most of the respondents are not staying â€“with their parent. They performed below expectation due to lack of security, care and discipline. Their school fees are not being paid in time. On the basis of such findings, recommendation were made that, Borno Government should create academic and counsel unit in Primary School with adequate funds where students from broken homes would be given proper guidance and counseling concerning their psychological and social problem towards.
|Settings||THE ROLE OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTION IN HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A Case Of Portharcout Metropolis River State) remove||THE ROLE OF THE FINANCIAL INVESTORS IN HOUSING PROVISIONING IN NIGERIA remove||examination of housing estate finance situation in Makurdi metropolis remove||INFLUENCE OF CLIENT ON PROPERTY VALUATION in Nigeria remove||MANAGEMENT OF RURAL URBAN MIGRATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: THE CASE OF ANAMBRA STATE (2004-2010) remove||EXAMINATION OF THE CHALLENGES OF PROPERTY RATING ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA. (A CASE STUDY OF ABUJA MINICIPAL) remove|
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|Description||ABSTRACT This study is on the role of the financial investors in housing provisioning in Nigeria. Housing plays a key role in the socio-economic development of every country but unfortunately, housing supply worldwide has not been able to meet demand. The inadequate housing is one of the biggest challenges facing both developed and developing countries today with finance being a crucial factor. The financial Investors is the largest housing supply system but has not been able to meet the increasing demand partly as a result of the inadequate and ineffective financial mechanisms for financing housing in the country. The study therefore investigated the major finance mechanisms used by the financial Investors and factors which hinder their access to formal credit facilities. It also made suggestions to improve access to credit facilities to the financial Investors to improve housing delivery. A cross-sectional research design was adopted as a research approach for the study. The simple random sampling was used to select the ten communities whilst the convenience sampling method was used to select the homeowners. In order to increase the accuracy of the work, the research was operated at a 95 percent confidence level with a 5 percent margin of error. A total of 310 interviews were conducted out of the total determined sample size of 392. The study came out with some major findings which included the dominant use of financial source of finance, the existence of an underdeveloped mortgage market and uneasy access to formal credit facilities from financial institutions due to the type and nature of jobs. It was realized that this has affected housing delivery because homeowners had to build incrementally which took a lot of time before house completion. The study recommended microfinance for housing, site and services scheme by the financial institutions and a non-mortgage lending facility for the financial Investors. Also, how to sustain the formal credit facilities for the financial Investors is seen as an area for further research.||ABSTRACT This project is on Examination of the challenges of property rating administration in Nigeria (a case study of Abuja Municipal). Property rating administration for long has being a problem in Nigeria, as its faced by Estate Evaluers, landlords and even tenants due to inadequacies that exist in property laws in the country. This research has sort to discus this challenges, as it highlights possible ways the government, public enterprises can help stop such administrations that are not favorable to the masses, especially those in Abuja municipal.|
|Content||ABSTRACT Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â This survey research conducted to find out the effect of broken homes on primary school pupils academic achievement in Jere Local Government Area. Two objectives and three research questions where formulated to guide the study. The population of the study consist of all the senior pupils in four selected school in Jere Local Area. Through the process of simple random sampling a total number of 100 pupils were selected to participate in the study. The major instrument used for collecting data was a questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed through the use of simple percentages. It was discovered based on the analysis that most of the respondents are not staying â€“with their parent. They performed below expectation due to lack of security, care and discipline. Their school fees are not being paid in time. On the basis of such findings, recommendation were made that, Borno Government should create academic and counsel unit in Primary School with adequate funds where students from broken homes would be given proper guidance and counseling concerning their psychological and social problem towards.||CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
This study is on the role of the financial investors in housing provisioning in Nigeria. Housing as a social need is vital to socio-economic development of every country (Giddings, 2007). The housing Investors is generally accepted as one of the most important determinants of the economic and social wellbeing of people. It plays a key role in the lives of people as the provision of shelter is one of the basic necessities of man (Moss, 2010). The need to provide adequate housing cannot be over emphasized and its importance can hardly be exaggerated (IMF, 2011).
Derban et al (2002) indicate that the availability of adequate and decent housing enhances good living conditions and productivity of all individuals. It plays a vital role in the health, happiness and civilized living of the individuals. Housing does not only satisfy the physical and biological requirement of man but also upholds his dignity and improves his quality of life (NCH, 2008). The provision of housing is so linked with national economic development that the rate of house construction is directly related to the economic performance of a country (BoG, 2007).
Unfortunately, the provision of housing worldwide has not been able to meet demand (Ogu and Ogbuozobe, 2001). This lag can be attributed to the population surge which has more than doubled in numbers in recent times (Giddings, 2007). Most developing countries are confronted with the problem of accommodating the rapidly growing population especially in their urban areas and Ghana is not an exception (Konadu- Agyeman, 2001). The provision of adequate shelter is one problem that the country has had to contend with. The inadequate housing stock and the lack of basic housing requirements induces stress and affects the living condition of households as well as productivity( Derban et al,2002).
One of the major problems facing housing delivery in Ghana is finance. The unavailability and inaccessibility of housing finance mechanisms has been identified as one of the important hurdles in improving housing delivery in the country (Hoek- Smit, 1998).
There are two main sources of finance in the housing finance system (Moss, 2010). They are the formal and financial sources. The formal source consists of government budgetary allocation and financial institutions in the form of mortgages. The financial sources include personal/family savings, individual money lenders, and remittances from family members.
Over the years, government of Ghana through housing schemes and plans has found ways and means of financing housing in the country. The rationale for government intervention in the housing market revolves around the goal of providing all Ghanaians with a decent house in a suitable living environment (IFA, 1993). During the 1970‟s and the 1980‟s, the main focus of government housing intervention in the country was by embarking on mass housing projects for the citizenry with the government being the sole financier of the projects. Examples of some of these housing projects are the government built low and medium class estates for civil servants (Afrane and Asamoah, 2011).
Currently government plays a double role when it comes to financing housing delivery (IFA, 1993). The government plays a direct role through the construction of public/mass houses but it is mostly not realized due to the lack of funds, lack of coordination and policy abandonment due to change in government. The government also plays an indirect role by creating an enabling environment through tax policies which includes tax subsidies for real estate developers and subsidized interest rates for borrowers from financial institutions associated to housing finance (eg. Home Finance Company Ltd).
The liberalization of the housing market has facilitated the involvement of the private Investors in housing delivery (Sangore, 2003).The private Investors currently produces over 83 percent of the total housing stock in the country(Boamah, 2010).The private Investors is divided into formal and financial investors. The formal Investors includes the real estate developers and cooperative societies. These developers construct housing projects for individuals to purchase them but this approach mostly exempts the poor and the middle income earners due to the high cost of the houses. The formal Investors actors provide only a few thousand dwellings in a year (UN-Habitat, 2011).The financial Investors consists of individuals who engage in housing provision for themselves. Given the apparent trends in most of the developing countries, there are indications that the bulk of urban housing in these countries will continue to be produced by the financial Investors (Okpala, 1994; Ikejiofor, 1997). There is the need for efficient and effective housing finance systems for the financial Investors since finance plays a key role in housing delivery.
1.2 Problem Statement
The Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing asserts that in order for the nation to remove the housing deficit of 1.7 million, the national housing production should be 170,000 units annually (MWWH, 2013). However the current supply capacity of the nation is in the region of 42,000 units per year (Afrane and Asamoah, 2011). Demand for housing in Ghana is higher in the three major urban areas; which are Accra, Nigeria and Sekondi-Takoradi (UN-Habitat, 2011). The Nigeria Metropolitan Assembly estimated that the total housing stock in Nigeria as of 2009 was 83, 693 (KMA, 2010) and this was distributed fairly amongst the ten sub metropolitan councils. The housing deficit in Nigeria Metropolis is startling since the total number of houses as of 2010 compared with the number of households indicated acute overcrowding in most houses (KMA, 2011). This constitutes a major problem and calls for an urgent need to address the situation.
Even though the financial Investors is by far the largest housing supply system in most urban areas, it has not been able to meet the increasing demand for housing partly as a result of the inadequate and ineffective financial mechanisms for financing housing in the country (Moss, 2010). Finance is crucial to housing by the financial Investors and lack of access to financial resources is a major problem facing this Investors (Ogu and Ogbuozobe, 2001).
In Ghana, very little is known about how homeowners finance the construction of new housing but it is however known that few homeowners have access to formal finance. This is because upfront finance is not easily accessible to allow them to purchase a higher quality home and pay for it over a longer and suitable period (Wapwera,et al,2014). This has resulted in most people financing through their personal savings but mobilizing savings and channeling them to finance housing projects has proven very difficult due to the type and nature of the jobs of the people in the financial Investors. They mostly do not have job security to enable them to save consistently. Personal savings also have had to compete with other household expenses making it extremely difficult (Ferguson and Smets, 2009).
Moreover, financial institutions are cautious about lending to the individuals thereby making access to credit facilities very difficult (Hoek-Smit, 1998). They provide very little support to low and moderate households in the form of mortgages. Some only provide mortgage loans for a small proportion of newly constructed houses and home purchases (Hoek-Smit, 1998).But even these financial institutions have made very little progress in this regard. Financial institutions mostly do not want to consider long-term lending for housing a priority because of the associated risks involved in the jobs of the financial Investors. These risks include insecure and undocumented incomes and the lack of collateral on the part of the private individuals (Hoek-Smit, 1998).The limited access to finance has partly led to the development of slums and squatter settlement and poor housing conditions.
The study focused on housing finance by the financial Investors. The financing options available to them and how they accessed funds for their housing projects and what can be done to improve their efforts in housing delivery in Nigeria Metropolis.
1.3 Research Questions
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION Right from time, food, clothing and shelter have been the three most basic requirement of man of all these three requirements food and clothing are the two, which influence man’s life more than the house in which he seeks shelter, security comfort and dignity. It is in fact where man starts and ends his dairy activities. Housing is mainly the most important factors which determine the nature and form of urban settlements and the quality of human existence is directly related to it: Housing is defined by Oyeyipo (1980) to mean, the provision of any form of structure, erection of building which is man made for the purpose of accommodating a person or person by taking housing to mean only shelter the definition appears defective as it ignores all those infrastructure facilities which housing brings along with it. The world health organization committee on housing defines it as the physical structure than uses for shelter including equipment and devices needed for physical and social well being of the occupant 2 such equipment and devices include utilities and services like electricity, water supply, good access roads sewage and refuse damp facilities. Makurdi metropolis is occupied mainly by government workers with low income. This position makes it difficult for them to afford the high cost of developing housing estates for their use. They therefore resort to borrowing from both formal and informal sources in other to find money for housing development and also The question then Is the existing financial investors in Makurdi metropolis enough to satisfy the demand for residential housing loans of these low income earner residing in Makurdi metropolis? If not how can be situation be improved. This research work therefore intends to the existing financial structure of Makurdi metropolis with a view to finding out how efficient it has been performing and proposing how the system could be improved.
BACK GROUND OF STUDYHousing estates is a fundamental and essential features in the urban environment. Adequate provision of housing estates have a great deal of positive impact on both the economic and social life of the urban citizens and its inadequacy has the reverse effect. The shortage of housing estate is one of the major problems facing the urban centres especially in the developing countries. Thus could be attributed estate development involves large amount of money, which is usually not within the capability of most urban dwellers particularly the medium and low income groups, the rate of housing estate construction often tend to be small and generally depend on financial resources. This situation of financial scarcity is made worse by the rigid attitude of financial investors towards lending for housing development. Their system of granting loan make it very difficult for the medium and low income groups to benefit from the available facility. The bulk of the mortgage loans go the upper class. This research work intend to look into the existing finance structure in Benue state urban, to find out if it is adequate to satisfy the housing needs of inhabitants of Makurdi.
3 DEVELOPMENTThe term development is mostly applied in relation of land valuers and estate surveyors sees it as a way of embarking on constructional work that will amount or give rise to utilization of land with its improvement or re-improvement of an already utilized one. According to Todaro (19) Development implies the multi-dimensional process involving charges in structures, attitude and investorss as well as the accelerations of economic growth, the reduction of inequality and eradication if absolute property. Development on the other hand has many definition. The British town and country planning. Act of 1947 defined development Inspection 12 subsection 2 as the carrying out of building engineering mining or other operation in, or, under land or the making of any building or other lands Similarly, the Nigeria land use decree of 1978 in section 50 subsection L defined development land to main land where there exist any physical improvement in the nature of roads development services, water, electricity, drainage building, structure or such improvement that may enhance the value of the land has industrial agricultural or residential purpose. In a more general sense development may be defined in socio-economic terms as a progress work-transformation of society or as a conscious action to effect large scale change in a designed direction utilizing the centralized or at least in a co-ordinate way the resources available to give political unit.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Valuation being the pivot of all the activities of the estate surveyors and value’s, it is seen as an act of assessing the worth of properties. It is also the act of valuing or estimating value. Valuation is the provision of written opinion as to capital price or value, or rental value, any given basis in respect of an interest in property, with or without associated information assumption or qualifications.
Valuation was regarded as act or science of estimating property values. But these days (valuation is perceived as more of science than art) MILLINGTON, 1988. Valuation has been likened to a science not because of any precision that may or may not exist, but because of the question on ‘how much’? poses a problem that required a solution. The scientific approach to problem solving is not to follow a systematic process. Enumerate above are purely scientific process.
Apart from this, the appraisals of other forms of investment have gone beyond institution by subjecting them to rigorous analytical technique using the computer (OLAYONWA, 2006).The aim of this study is to identify ways client influence values in valuation reports.
The term client in valuation parlance refers to individuals or corporate bodies who use the rental, market or investment value estimates/advice of a valuer/appraiser for a fee. Invariably, non-clients are actually those who have no need for such professional advice as given by the valuer. Normally, it is expected that such advice from the Estate Surveyor and valuer is derived from an independent interpretation of property demand/supply and price relationship. However, there are indications that clients sometimes influence the outcome of the valuation process, a situation that perhaps professionals saddled with the responsibility of proffering professional judgment are faced with. The influence of clients’ on valuers manifests itself in the latter adjusting their opinion of values or reported figures to suit client desires for high or low estimates. To this end, there are perhaps subtle allegations from bank executives and other financial institutions that issue mortgage loans, on reports of clients’ deliberately inflating mortgage valuation upwards for greater facilities.
Allegations on clients’ influence are indeed worldwide. For instance, Kinnard, Lenk and Worzala (1997), discovered that some appraisers (valuers) in the US are willing to change valuation conclusions under client pressure. Baum et. al. (2000) and Crosby et al (2004) also confirmed the existence of client evidence on valuations in the UK. Similarly, in New Zealand and Singapore, surveys of registered appraisals reveal considerable levels of clients’ influence (Levy and Schuck, 1999 and Shi-Ming Yu, 2002 respectively). The studies demonstrate a variety of dimensions that such influence/intimidation takes. At times, higher fees are offered, or offers are made of continuation of future engagement.
At other times, professional fees are denied - a phenomenon described by Kohli (1989) as the reward and coercive power of clients. Moreover, clients at times offer prejudiced valuation information to their valuers particularly in markets unfamiliar to the valuers (what Levy and Schuck, 1998 described as information power). In Nigeria, it is even suggested that some clients insist that valuers adopt the cost approach to value to secure higher estimates, even where the properties to be valued are investment properties and the market evidence is available (Ogunba, 1997).
In Nigeria, though such research is still embryonic, the story is not different as earlier research has ascertained the existence of this phenomenon (Amidu and Aluko, 2007; Iroham, 2007; Ogunba, 1997). Even in this country just like any other African Commonwealth countries where the valuation profession is newly emerging and the role of the Estate Surveyor and valuer is yet to be fully appreciated, this scourge does exist. Perhaps, the reason adduced for such influence could be direct linkage between the professionals and those that release jobs to them. In cases where a third party (non-client) comes in play, the question then is would the professionals still give room for such influence particularly when fully assured that their interest would in no way be jeopardized? It is in light of the aforementioned that this research intends to discover the influence a non-client would have so as to seek for ways to ameliorate this glitch. Perhaps however, the need for this study is more compelling in a country like Nigeria because it is in such developing societies where investigation and elimination of all forms of client influence and other potentially damaging circumstances is apt so as to prevent the dent on integrity of the young profession trying to justify her relevance to largely unimpressed clientele and competing professionals.
The study focuses on mortgage valuation being the most frequent and influenced by Clients’ (Iroham, 2007). One probable outcome client influence eventually leads to is the distortion of values which is usually upwards, as clients will always want to inflate the values of their security so as to attract more facility, thereby not giving the true depiction of values that represents outcomes in the property market. This explains why bank managers and disbursers of loans in Nigeria would prefer valuation reports to be more explicit particularly in terms of valuation calculations carried out (Oluwunmi, et. al., 2011).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Property valuation is an industry constantly striving for consistency, and for levels of low variance and high accuracy. Many variables affecting variance and accuracy exist and have been studied internationally. Valuation accuracy is needed as a constant throughout the global valuation industry, but is affected by the way that valuers are influenced. The relationship between the property valuer and the client as a way of influencing values has caused significant global interest, and these influences on valuers by clients have been researched. Ethical considerations towards valuation practice and the accuracy in valuation outcomes resulting from these ethical considerations have been studied internationally.
This study will address the existence of client influence on valuer behaviour in Nigeria as well as the nature of this influence. The valuation industry in Nigeria, as in the rest of the world, is built on ethical behaviour and credibility. When these values are breached, the consequences can be detrimental to the industry, negatively influencing the industry and the intention to achieve accuracy among valuers. Research into client influence on valuer behaviour has not yet been conducted in Nigeria and has to be undertaken. The nature, prevalence and consequences of such influences are yet to be established. Through a quantitative methodology of survey questionnaires and follow-up unstructured interviews, this study will address client influence on valuer behaviour in Nigeria, what the variables of these influences are and the prevalence of such influences.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
||ABSTRACT This thesis studied the Management of Rural-Urban Migration and Economic Development in Nigeria: The case of Anambra State. Development of a Country or State depends on its ability to manage and deal with challenges that come with development, such as over-population, pressure on facilities (roads, electricity), accommodation problems, environmental pollutions and other implications. In conducting this study, the researcher elicited relevant data from both the primary and secondary sources. Questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. Three hundred and ninety- nine (399) copies of questionnaire were administered to the respondents of the three local government areas. Subsequently, the collected data were analyzed with simple percentage, and presented in frequency tables for easy comprehension. The hypotheses were also tested through chi-square ( From Â the data presentation and analysis, and discussion of results therein, the researcher arrived at the following findings: The housing estate are mostly owned by individuals or private companies and are very expensive; the transformers provided are not consummate with the population increase; the state lacks available lands for agriculture as most of the lands are affected by erosion, floods and landslides. The researcher recommends the following: Government should be in partnership with some of these individuals and companies so as eliminate accommodations problems, government should be stain that materials used for transformers are adequate while making sure that the agricultural extension programmes are well financed in real terms as this will help manage the problems of rural-urban migration and bring about development.||CHAPTER ONE
This project is on Examination of the challenges of property rating administration in Nigeria (a case study of Abuja Municipal). The creation of more state in Nigeria in 1976 gave rise to new urban centres, the rapid growth of which increased the need to finance the provision of public utilities. One of the major sources of finance is real estate taxation. Property tax reform is one of the alternatives proposed as a means for raising increased revenue to meet the financial needs of cities in less developed countries. Property rating is employed in Nigeria at the local government levels to raise revenues for public purposes. Rates are levied not on the nation as a whole but on a particular locality that is deemed ripe for the imposition of rates and with the consent of parliament. This consent is not given on every occasion of rate collection. The power is general one, given by statute without restriction and for all times.
The general lack of interest on the part of the property ratepayers and the reluctance of some assessment jurisdictions to disclose information, the property rate administration is often surrounded in mystery. This centres on the fact that the core of property tax (rate) administration is the value of each taxpayer’s property, so that each taxpayer will bear fairly his proportional part of the overall tax levy. Property owners have a right to know the approximate, fraction of estimated market value that is being used for tax (rating) assessment purposes.
If the local government have to exist and to viable as the third tier of government they must surely need some local revenue in order stand firmly property rating is the most obvious source of such revenue. Property rating not only helps in influencing development but is also the major source of local government revenue used in defraying the cost of services rendered by local government includes, inter-alia, parks, burial grounds, registration of marriage, death and birth.
It is important to note that rate is a form of tax, hence the use of property rate and property tax is interchangeable, although there is a slight difference between rate and tax, beside that rate is a form of tax, while in rating the amount of revenue required by a rating authority is first decided and then distributed among the rate payers according to a pre-fixed standard in other kind of tax the exact amount to be generated at the time of imposition is unknown.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
From investigation and empirical data on property rating in general and in Abuja in particular, one observes a gold mine with proper handling waiting to be exploited as can seen in Abuja, therefore the aim of this paper to examine the administration of property rating in the state, how well informed the rate payers are, their attitudes, improvement in the system, how well the system has been paying off, and of course, a critical appraisal of the system.
The purpose of this paper is to study and identify the sources of local government finance, its problems, methods of property assessment as provided in some rating laws/Edicts, the impact of control of rent edict on property assessment, prospects of property rating and make recommendations not only on how best to expand the local government financial base with particular reference to property rating system but also on how best to implement the rating in the country. The purpose also includes the prospect of site value rating as a means of boosting the local government finance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The local government reform law gave the function of rate collection to the local authorities. The valuation unit in Abuja was staffed by civil servants. The unit organized tenement rating and prepared valuation list which were after due procedure sent to the rating authority to serve demand notices and collect tenement rates.
One of the greatest rating problems in most rating authorities is the problem of collection. The weak or ineffective administration has resulted in a high rate of default. For example in 2013/15 the whole of Abuja north 21% of the estimated rate revenue was collected. Some rating authorities are now embarking on a commission basis.
In collation with this, most property owners in Abuja are illiterates and do not know their rights. Most of them do not know why they should pay property rate at all. Added to this ugly situation is the ambiguity mounted by the assessors (valuation officers) in their notice to the property owners indicating the assessed value thereof. They only show the assessed annual value with out signifying the actual rate payable. When most of landlords see these, they simply deafen their ears, and blatantly refuse to pay, misconstruing the annual value as the rate payable value. They are only brought to attention of this premise by litigation, which is not the best interest of the local government, the cost and time consummations.
Another factor is how to equate the rating burden of the property owners in the locality with the value of services provided by the government activity. Implicit in this problem is the question of how to improve the current deplorable situation and weakening rural development programs via sound administration of property rating revenue.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to examine the challenges of property rating in Nigeria, from the introduction of property rating in the local government is to raise revenue from the source. Revenue, thus generated are utilized by the local government where the tenements/properties are located to provide essential service which the government grants cannot easily take care of.
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research work was focused on residents of Abuja and its because property rating is so wide a discourse that all its facets could not, within the time limit and the volume margin, be covered effectively.
Further more, getting data from respondents was difficult as they were reluctant to give necessary informations, due to ignorance on the purpose of the research on the part of the property owners to disclose necessary information on their own parts of the administration was also there. This was so pronominal that most of them either refused the collection and filling in of the questionnaires or automatically dodged certain personal interview questions.