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THE ROLE OF THE MASS MEDIA IN PROPAGING HUMAN RIGHT ABUSE IN NIGERIA

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The political entity called Nigeria has continued since independence under one form of governance to the other. The military rulers have had to rule by decrees thus suspending the constitution that guarantees the citizenry their fundamental human rights.

It, therefore, makes it obvious that the basis for government, which is for the ultimate good of the people, is defeated when their rights are not guaranteed. And indeed authoritarian rule has not helped human right issues, as abuse had over time been recorded and even in the most bizarre manner.

This is where the mass media comes into focus, as though, the government and the governed are better informed about their various privileges and limitations as they are entrenched in the constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria, able it only under a democratically elected government.

The mass media serve as the cornstone of any progress in the society both economically and politically. And because they serve as an essential ingredients in the successful management of human right abuse all over the world. It is therefore expected that their role as societal watchdogs should not be abandoned for some mundane issue. For a society that its citizens cannot be guaranteed for the protection of their fundamental human rights cannot be said to be free in the real sense of the word.

The mass media have always been a channel through which human rights abuse had been exposed to the public. But there are times that human rights abuses have been quite intractable for the mass media to manage either due to tribal or religious sentiments or out right ownership interference. In such cases, the citizens whose rights have been abused are unfortunately given the sthort end of the stick.

The mass media should be able to effectively manage the issue of human right abuses as they are unfolded in the society. Considering the fact that they most of the time set the agenda for public discourse, they should in the process be able to distinguish what should be known and what should not be known.

Except in that case they want to leave the role of agenda setting to the. Government, which is this case Means that the people are indolent and as Plato stressed Odyseey press 1966:28 they look up to the leaders of the state to say what goes.

Despite the inability of the mass media to at times manage human right abuses in Nigeria, they have at other times pre empted the activities of human right groups in the past, thus, leading to clampdown on members of the groups.

1.2STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS

The management of human right abuses by the Nigerian mass media is what is being discussed. The main thrust of this research is to bring to the fore the role of the various variables in the proper management of human right abuses.

The issues of political human rights abuses and how the various ethnic and religious factors have seriously short circuited the proper management of human right abuses will be perused with a view of finding a way out of them.

1.3OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. This study sets out to see what extent the mass media had been able to manage human right abuses in Nigeria.

ii. It is aimed at putting in the right perspective the order of management of human right abuses by the Mass Media.

iii. This study sets out to know whether religious and ethical consideration are responsible for how the Mass Media in Nigeria Manage Cases of human right abuses.

iv. Finally, it is to find out whether ownership factor plays any role in the Management of human right abuses in Nigeria.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is out to make know the benefit of the effective management of human right abuses by the Mass Media in Nigeria.

Furthermore, it will enhance the knowledge of various players in the mass media on their role in effective and effectual reportage of human right abuses in Nigeria. Also it will now put the Mass owners in the know about the limitation of their interference on reportage of news.

1.5RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The various questions, which this research sets out to answer, are as follows,

i. Has the Mass Media been able to Manage human right violations in Nigeria

ii. Has human right abuse reportage been without censor

iii. How has government policies affect the reportage of human right abuses

iv. Are religious and ethnic factors responsible for the management of mass Media organization in Nigeria.

v. Is the Mass Media in Nigeria free in its coverage

If these questions are answered without prejudice then we can definitely say that professionalism will enhance. As the various problem that have plagued the profession it would have been. Resolved; thereby helping to produce objective and balanced reportage of human right violations in Nigeria.

1.6RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

H1:Privately owned Media outfits report more on human right violations

H0:Privately owned Media outfits do not report more on human right violations.

H2:the government owned Media are professional in the reportage of human right abuses.

H0:the government owned Media are not professional in the reportage of human right abuses.

H3;Mass Media really manage human right abuses in Nigeria.

H0;Mass Media does not rally Manage human right abuses in Nigeria.

1.7 ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY

1. it is presumed that ethnic tendency influences the reportage of newspapers in Nigeria as it concerns human rights abuse.

2. The researchers assume that ethnic biases play a considerable role and most times precede the objective coverage of political issues.

3. It is also assumed by the researcher that tribal sentiments will naturally prevail over rational writing in the reportage of human rights abuse.

4. Ownership consideration, the researcher presumes will interfere or play a prominent role in the reportage of human right abuses especially when it does not favor the owner.

5. Assumable, ethnic biases to a reasonable degree affects the credibility of the various media houses across there country.

1.8LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This research work was without its constraints. Notable among them was the issue of gathering Materials for the work. It was a tedious process that was not helped by the non-challant or should I say uncooperative attitude of some staff of the Media houses visited.

Another constraints was time. Due to the shortness of time I could not really lay my hands on enough material since there are other class work and assignments to be taken care of.

Financial constraint did not help matters. Finance really limited my scope of converge, as I could not move around a lot. Therefore, I had not choice but to scale down on the rage or scope so that I can be able to meet with other schedules.

1.9 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATION DEFINITIONS

in the course of this research, there are some terms used in this foundation on which this research is based. The words such as Mass Media, Management and human right abuse will be looked into, for there are to be a proper under standing of the research.

MASS MEDIA

A Mass Medium, in the words of Hall 1981 :215, is essentially a working group organized around some device sic for circulating the same Message at about the same time to large numbers of people.

Mass Medium however is a singular concept the plural of which is mass Medium. In the light of the above definition therefore, the mass Media are Modern channels of Mass communication used to disseminate news and information to very diverse CUM large numbers of people simultaneously.

This implies that mass Media Messages easily cut across geopolitical boundaries unlike that of traditional Media that suffer a limited reach. this, again, Means that with the epoch of the Mass communication system, relatively large audience Members could be quickly reached with specific massage irrespective of their diverse locations in the global, geopolitical and cultural

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

1.2 Statement of problems

1.3 Objectives of the study

1.4 Significance of the study

1.5 Research questions

1.6 Research hypothesis

1.8 Definition of terms

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The political entity called Nigeria has continued since independence under one form of governance to the other. The military rulers have had to rule by decrees thus suspending the constitution that guarantees the citizenry their fundamental human rights.

It, therefore, makes it obvious that the basis for government, which is for the ultimate good of the people, is defeated when their rights are not guaranteed. And indeed authoritarian rule has not helped human right issues, as abuse had over time been recorded and even in the most bizarre manner.

This is where the mass media comes into focus, as though, the government and the governed are better informed about their various privileges and limitations as they are entrenched in the constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria, able it only under a democratically elected government.

The mass media serve as the cornstone of any progress in the society both economically and politically. And because they serve as an essential ingredients in the successful management of human right abuse all over the world. It is therefore expected that their role as societal watchdogs should not be abandoned for some mundane issue. For a society that its citizens cannot be guaranteed for the protection of their fundamental human rights cannot be said to be free in the real sense of the word.

The mass media have always been a channel through which human rights abuse had been exposed to the public. But there are times that human rights abuses have been quite intractable for the mass media to manage either due to tribal or religious sentiments or out right ownership interference. In such cases, the citizens whose rights have been abused are unfortunately given the sthort end of the stick.

The mass media should be able to effectively manage the issue of human right abuses as they are unfolded in the society. Considering the fact that they most of the time set the agenda for public discourse, they should in the process be able to distinguish what should be known and what should not be known.

Except in that case they want to leave the role of agenda setting to the. Government, which is this case Means that the people are indolent and as Plato stressed Odyseey press 1966:28 they look up to the leaders of the state to say what goes.

Despite the inability of the mass media to at times manage human right abuses in Nigeria, they have at other times pre empted the activities of human right groups in the past, thus, leading to clampdown on members of the groups.

1.2STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS

The management of human right abuses by the Nigerian mass media is what is being discussed. The main thrust of this research is to bring to the fore the role of the various variables in the proper management of human right abuses.

The issues of political human rights abuses and how the various ethnic and religious factors have seriously short circuited the proper management of human right abuses will be perused with a view of finding a way out of them.

1.3OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. This study sets out to see what extent the mass media had been able to manage human right abuses in Nigeria.

ii. It is aimed at putting in the right perspective the order of management of human right abuses by the Mass Media.

iii. This study sets out to know whether religious and ethical consideration are responsible for how the Mass Media in Nigeria Manage Cases of human right abuses.

iv. Finally, it is to find out whether ownership factor plays any role in the Management of human right abuses in Nigeria.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is out to make know the benefit of the effective management of human right abuses by the Mass Media in Nigeria.

Furthermore, it will enhance the knowledge of various players in the mass media on their role in effective and effectual reportage of human right abuses in Nigeria. Also it will now put the Mass owners in the know about the limitation of their interference on reportage of news.

1.5RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The various questions, which this research sets out to answer, are as follows,

i. Has the Mass Media been able to Manage human right violations in Nigeria

ii. Has human right abuse reportage been without censor

iii. How has government policies affect the reportage of human right abuses

iv. Are religious and ethnic factors responsible for the management of mass Media organization in Nigeria.

v. Is the Mass Media in Nigeria free in its coverage

If these questions are answered without prejudice then we can definitely say that professionalism will enhance. As the various problem that have plagued the profession it would have been. Resolved; thereby helping to produce objective and balanced reportage of human right violations in Nigeria.

1.6RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

H1:Privately owned Media outfits report more on human right violations

H0:Privately owned Media outfits do not report more on human right violations.

H2:the government owned Media are professional in the reportage of human right abuses.

H0:the government owned Media are not professional in the reportage of human right abuses.

H3;Mass Media really manage human right abuses in Nigeria.

H0;Mass Media does not rally Manage human right abuses in Nigeria.

1.7 ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY

1. it is presumed that ethnic tendency influences the reportage of newspapers in Nigeria as it concerns human rights abuse.

2. The researchers assume that ethnic biases play a considerable role and most times precede the objective coverage of political issues.

3. It is also assumed by the researcher that tribal sentiments will naturally prevail over rational writing in the reportage of human rights abuse.

4. Ownership consideration, the researcher presumes will interfere or play a prominent role in the reportage of human right abuses especially when it does not favor the owner.

5. Assumable, ethnic biases to a reasonable degree affects the credibility of the various media houses across there country.

1.8LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This research work was without its constraints. Notable among them was the issue of gathering Materials for the work. It was a tedious process that was not helped by the non-challant or should I say uncooperative attitude of some staff of the Media houses visited.

Another constraints was time. Due to the shortness of time I could not really lay my hands on enough material since there are other class work and assignments to be taken care of.

Financial constraint did not help matters. Finance really limited my scope of converge, as I could not move around a lot. Therefore, I had not choice but to scale down on the rage or scope so that I can be able to meet with other schedules.

1.9 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATION DEFINITIONS

in the course of this research, there are some terms used in this foundation on which this research is based. The words such as Mass Media, Management and human right abuse will be looked into, for there are to be a proper under standing of the research.

MASS MEDIA

A Mass Medium, in the words of Hall 1981 :215, is essentially a working group organized around some device sic for circulating the same Message at about the same time to large numbers of people.

Mass Medium however is a singular concept the plural of which is mass Medium. In the light of the above definition therefore, the mass Media are Modern channels of Mass communication used to disseminate news and information to very diverse CUM large numbers of people simultaneously.

This implies that mass Media Messages easily cut across geopolitical boundaries unlike that of traditional Media that suffer a limited reach. this, again, Means that with the epoch of the Mass communication system, relatively large audience Members could be quickly reached with specific massage irrespective of their diverse locations in the global, geopolitical and cultural map Nwodu, 2009.

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