COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF SIMULATION AND DEMONSTRATION METHODS OF INSTRUCTION ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BUSINESS STUDIES AT JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL IN DELTA STATE

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ABSTRACT

This study focused on the Effect of Simulation and Demonstration teaching methods on Junior Secondary School Students Performance in Business Studies. Five research questions were posed and three hypotheses formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study was quasiexperimental design. The population for the study consisted of all Junior Secondary School JSSII students offering business studies in the 15 government owned secondary schools selected in Isoko North Local Government Area. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two 2 intact classes amounting to 93 students, comprising 51 male and 42 females. The school were grouped into simulation and demonstration groups. A test was administered to the two groups which served as a pretest. A demonstration teaching method was used for the demonstration group while students in the simulation group were exposed to the simulation method of teaching. A teacher made test was later administered to the groups which served as a post test. Data collected were organized in tables and analyzed using mean and standard deviation. ANCOVA was used to test the hypotheses. The finding of the study shows that simulation method has significant effect on students performance in learning business studies. There was significant difference in students mean achievement score after using simulation in teaching business studies. The simulation group perform significantly better than the demonstration group. Female students perform better than their male counterparts showing a significant difference in their performance in business studies. The mean performance scores of students before and after simulation differed significantly showing that students performed better after they have been exposed to simulation method. One of the recommendations made based on the findings is that, business teacher should be encouraged to adopt the use of simulation as an alternative to demonstration teaching method in teaching business studies. Implications were drawn and areas of further research were highlighted.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page i

Approval page ii

Certification iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgement v

Abstract vi

Table of Contents vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1

Background of the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 5

Purpose of the Study 6

Significance of the Study 7

Scope of the Study 8

Research Questions 9

Hypotheses 10

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 11

Conceptual Framework 12

Instructional Methodologies 12

Simulation Method 15

Demonstration Method 22

Gender as a Factor in Academic Performance 27

Theoretical Framework 30

Pavlovs Classical Conditioning Theory 31

Importance of Pavlovs Theory to Effective teaching

of Business Studies 31

Thorndike Theory of Learning Effect 33

Implication of Thorndikes Theory of Trial and

Error to Effective Teaching of Business Studies 34

Skinners Theory of Operant Conditioning 36

Importance of Skinners Theory to Effective

Teaching of Business Studies 37

Theory of Achievement/Performance 37

Theoretical Study 39

Junior Secondary in Nigeria 39

Introduction of Business Studies in JSS Curriculum in Nigeria 41

Review of Related Empirical Studies 45

Summary of Review of Related Literature 46

CHAPTER THREE: METHOD 48

Research Design 48

Area of the Study 49

Population of the Study 50

Sample and Sampling Technique 50

Assignment of Classes to Group 51

Instrument for Data Collection 52

Development of JSBSPT 53

Development of STMAQ 53

Validation of Instruments 54

Reliability of the STMAQ 55

Pilot Study 56

Training Programme for Teachers 56

Experimental Procedures 59

Control of Extraneous Variables 60

Method of Data Collection 62

Method of Data Analysis 62

Decision Rule 63

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 64

Research Question 1 64

Research Question 2 65

Research Question 3 66

Research Question 4 67

Research Question 5 69

Hypotheses Testing 70

Hypothesis 1 70

Hypothesis 2 71

Hypothesis 3 72

Summary of the Findings 73

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATION 75

Discussion of Major Findings 75

Conclusion 79

Implication of the Findings 79

Recommendation 80

Limitation of the Study 81

Suggestions for Further Research 82

REFERENCES 83

APPENDICES

Appendix 1. Distribution of Junior Secondary Schools offering Business Studies in Isoko North LGA 88

Appendix 2. Lesson Plan for the Demonstration Group 89

Appendix 3. Lesson Plan for the Simulation Group 117

Appendix 4. Teaching Guide for Teacher Using the Simulation Teaching Method 136

Appendix 5. Junior School Business Studies Performance Test 137

Appendix 6. Introduction Letter 146

Appendix 7. Appreciation of Simulation Teaching Method by Students 143

Appendix 8. Computation of STMAQ Reliability 145

Appendix 9. Statistical Analysis 146

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COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF SIMULATION AND DEMONSTRATION METHODS OF INSTRUCTION ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BUSINESS STUDIES AT JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL IN DELTA STATE

3,000.003,200.00 (-6%)

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