This project shows the construction of a microcontroller based security door using smart card. It is aimed towards programming the microcontroller to control the hardware in sliding door. The system consists of a microcontroller 89S52 which sends a signal to the multiplexers on insertion of the smart card in the card slot. The multiplexers consist of ICS which prompts for a display of the identity of the card user in the liquid crystal display LCD. The LCD displays the status of the card. On validation of the card, the LCD displays a welcome note to the user and prompts for a pin code. The pin code is being keyed in from the key pad. If confirmed by the program written into the microcontroller access will be granted, otherwise no access, giving the user two more chances to insert the correct smartcard or pin code to it, before final denial of access and alarm. When access is granted, the card sends a 5volt signal to the microcontroller which triggers relay, resulting in the opening of the door.
Creation of secured access path to offices, homes, hotels, industries etc. has been a successful discovery of man. As a result of this, it has been possible to create door/gates that are well secured using smart card.
Individuals are becoming more aware of the dangers/ risk associated with relying on keys or padlocks to provide security to unauthorized areas of their apartments. Fraudsters/criminals can forge keys or make master keys that will be used to break into such rooms or offices.
To eliminate this insecure and old fashioned method, the use of password in doors/gates mechanism evolved. The development of single secret authentication such as password is an effective security control.
A long password of more than ten characters that consists of random letters, numbers and special character can be very difficult to crack. Unfortunately, users cannot always remember the sort of password, partly due to fundamental human limitations.
Two factor authentication i.e. System that uses card and pin code for authentication overcame the issues of single secret authentication by the requirement of a second secret. Two factor authentication uses a combination of the following items;
Something that the user has, such as hardware token or a smartcard.
Something the user knows, such as personal identification number pin.
Hence to reduce or eliminate the access of unauthorized personnel into unauthorized areas, an automated door/access path is to be constructed. This involves controlling the doors/gates by an artificial means artificial intelligence. It involves the application of automated system that is incorporated into these doors/gates for efficient and optimum performance.
This project was constructed using microcontroller for better creativity and beauty in design. The microcontroller programmable has series of instruction fed into it, this help it to accomplish most intelligent task like the human brain. These include detection of card, identification of password, displaying access granted, access denied and opening and closing of door/gate with the aid of the smart card. An electromagnetic relay controls the opening and closing of the door/gate which is moved to and fro by a synchronous motor DC.
The microcontroller based security door using smart card is designed using the 89S52 microcontroller with appropriate software package. The project is segmented into different module which includes; the mechanical, electrical/electronic and programmable computerized part as listed below;
1. The microcontroller module
2. The keypad module
3. Electromagnetic relay
4. The display unit module
5. The Smart card module
6. The alarm signal module
7. The sliding door/gate
8. Electric motor
9. The Power Supply Module etc.
The microcontroller: The microcontroller does most of the addressing and instruction execution through its data, address and control busses.
The Keypad: The keypad is used for selection i.e. As an input device to issue instruction to the control processing unit CPU of the processor.
The smart card and its associated pin: provide the security system.
The Display Module: the display module shows the output of events that are taking place.
The Electromagnetic Relay: The help of the relay is utilized by the CPU to switch the motor ON which moves or turns causing the gate/door to slide to the defined direction.
The Alarm Unit: The alarm unit produces an alarm signal when a wrong password or pin code is entered more than three times.
The power supply Unit: The power supply unit supplies a voltage for optimum operation of the circuit.
In all, this project demonstrates the integral function of what is obtainable in real system.
1.1 AREAS OF APPLICATION
This project is applicable in areas where unauthorized personnel are restricted from access as can be seen in
Credit or ATM cards
Authorization card for pay television
Sims for mobile phones
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The major aim of this project is to construct a system that uses two factor authentication smart card and their associated pins to provide security control to reduce the threat of authorized access to some restricted areas. It also aims at bridging the technological gap between developing and developed countries of the world.