In Nigeria today and other countries, transportation business has become more sophisticated than it was years ago. Transportation is a means of carrying people or goods from one place to another for short period of time paying for their services. There are various categories of car used, which include:
Transportation business was developed to solve problems of movement of people and migration purpose. Thousands of people travel from countries to other countries in search of jobs, and business transaction they always become anxious of what to use for the migration. However, man’s quest for solving this problem has resulted in development of business, machines cars, and Lorries etc in order to eradicate the problem of migration.
In the present day’s society, particularly in developing nations, the word computer is becoming an everyday language, unlike in the developed countries where the roots are already strong on the ground. Nigeria being one of the developing nations of the world is making frantic efforts to see that this wonderful gift of our time (computer) gets into all sectors in the society-business and engineering organization.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY
In the late eighties, an alternative transport strategy gained support on the proposition that hardship suffered by urban commuters shall be reduced and alleviated while improving and modernizing urban traffic flow and the nature of mass transit as well as the foundation of developing a comprehensive and integrated mass transit system. The proportion also includes the promotion of local technology in the automobile industry.
The Federal Urban Mass Transit Programme (FUMTP) was introduced by the Federal government in 1988. The programme had its root in President Ibrahim Babangida’s 1988 budget with special emphasis on the states, Abuja and few specialized agencies.
In order to ensure an orderly, co-ordinated and efficient implementation of the Mass Transit programme at the State level, operational blue prints were issued by the management of the FUMTP. One among the issues addressed was that “all the state governments were expected to setup a limited liability company to operate the urban mass transit programme, alongside private operators”. The bus companies were expected to as much as practicable be cost effective (Nwosu, 1994).
It was on this premise that Imo Transit Company Limited alongside other bus companies was established. The ITC Limited is the implementing agency of the State Mass Transit programme in Imo State. It was commissioned on Wednesday, August 24, 1988 and incorporated the same year as a private limited liability company under the company’s Act of 1968 as amended. It is a parastatal under the State Ministry of Works, Housing and Transport. It was commissioned by the then Military Governor of the State-Commander Amadi Ikwechegh.
On inception in August 1988, the company’s total fleet size was only twenty (20) buses, made up of 10 Nos. – 0365 42 – seater Mercedes Benz Buses and 10 Nos. J5-17 seater Peugeot Buses. These buses were thinly distributed over nine operational routes. Today, the story is different in term of fleet size and operational routes.
The ITC bus operations aim at catering for the three major areas of transport demand in Imo State. These are the urban, inter-urban and the inter-state travel demands. However, in the actual distribution of its services, the ITC reasonably emphasizes the inter-Urban travel demands even as modalities for the commencement of urban services are being worked out. The company has its headquarters at Owerri with the following facilities that comprise the waiting hall, fuel dump, workshop for repairs of vehicles and parking facilities for individuals within the neighborhood.
ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF THE COMPANY (ITC)
The ITC Ltd. has a general manager as its Chief Executive who is responsible to the Board of Director. The company has four major departments namely; Administrative Department, Account, Maintenance and Traffic Department, The Audit, Public Relation and Security Offices are attached to the office of the General Manager.
Each of these departments has a management staff in charge that controls and co-ordinates the day-to-day affairs and is answerable to the General Manager and Chief Executive.
OPERATIONS OF THE IMO TRANSPORT COMPANY LTD
The company’s initial operations were essentially urban services to the urban commuters in the State capital, Owerri. The company also operated a skeletal inter-city service to and from the major urban centers of Imo State covering Owerri, Aba, Umuahia, Okigwe and Orlu.
POLICY OBJECTIVES OF THE ITC
The policy objectives of ITC Ltd derive essentially from the general and specific policy objective of the former Federal Urban Mass Transit programme, the presidency, Abuja. The Federal Government’s policy objectives seek to provide efficient transportation services within the country at an affordable cost to the consumer – the passenger. In the policy guidelines, due emphasis is placed on the three demand – actuated transport needs of the traveling masses which guarantee their movement for various economic and social travel purpose.
In Imo State, the ITC has applied this policy objective by operating it demand – actuated bus services from each major urban center to the other and from the state to other state report. The policy objectives stipulated that the ITC was set up
- To provide available, affordable and efficient transport facility
- Employment creation
- To be a source of Revenue to the state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
With respect to the road travel, it is important to evaluate the extent and quality of the road network. As be seen from a tour of rural areas, many roads that have been constructed, are in a terrible state of disrepair. As with so many things in post-oil-boom Nigeria, many rural areas are only accessible by car in the dry season. Certain stretches of rural roads are so bad that motorized vehicles have by-passed the original road way to form new dirt tracks, other portion of rural roads have been reduced to one lane. Thus, small areas decay can very rapidly expand under the forces of erosion and weathering in the rainy season. Much of the problems associated with the erosion of road ways are compounded by the lack of adequate drainage infrastructure (which also make driving hazardous during heavy rains). While Nigeria are not forced to address maintenance problems derived from recurrent freezing and thawing (like temperate area of the United States), they do have to deal with intense seasonal rain.
Another issue that directly relates to urban transportation is city planning, while the extent and effectiveness of planning in Nigeria cities varies to some extent, most urban areas are forced to deal with city regions where no formal planning was conducted. Hence transportation routes are often confined to pre-existing routes that may not always follow optimum courses. A diagrammatical example of planning done after development occurred in the city of Ibadan in 1980’s. Under military direction, city workers bulldozed swaths of houses and business, making ways for new streets. While this action probably improved traffic flow in certain part of the city, it clearly violated the human rights of the people affected by the removal process.
One area to be discussed is the issue of urban transportation. It is that of cost of transportation.
Another aspect of Nigeria urban transportation is the notable lack of public transportation.
One final issue to consider with respect to cost of transportation is the cost of fuel. It is ironic indeed that oil-inch country such as Nigeria often has a scarcity of fuel.
The factors that contributed to the discontinuous supply of oil are the reduced production capacity of Nigeria refineries and price controls imposed by the Federal government.
It now remains a few words about inter-regional and inter-city transportation. First, most internal transportation is via land, many inter-urban land linkage are in good condition relative to rural-rural linkages.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of the project work is to provide an on-line system which will help to speed up services rendered to customers. In the work I will aim at designing and implementing an on-line ticketing and travel reservation system. The presence of these on-line systems will help to update file accurately, and reservation terminals can be linked to other office in the ITC transport.
After the data or information of a customer has been collected (this data includes; seat no, passenger’s name, time of arrival and departure time) they are processed by the computer, the output file when produce (which consist of passenger’s name, seat no, departure and arrival time) etc is updated and it is then used for report making or accounting. These report obtained from the updated file can be used for auditing by their board of directors.
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The extent to be covered in this project is the designing and implementation of on-line ticketing and travel reservation system.
The limitations are time and cost of transportation constraint, lack of fund in carrying out the project work and insufficient material such as textbooks.
1.5 IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
On-line ticketing increase the speed with which access is made to data. Hence data can be retrieved or processed when necessary. However, in on-line ticketing and travel reservation system data are:
- Collected in full with accuracy
- Generated at appropriate time
- Kept up-to-date and accurate in file process properly, accurately to provide good information.
1.6 THE PRESENT SOURE OF INFORMATION IN ITC TRANSPORT
During my interview with the reservation clerk in ITC transport, it was noted that information can be obtained from the customers through the following means.
- Visiting their website to know the latest information.
- Telephone conversation medium
- Correspondence (informal/formal).
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Browser: This is a program that allows user to access documents on the World Wide Web (WWW). Browsers can be either text or graphic.
- E-Ticket: E-ticket (electronic ticket) is used to represent the purchase of a seat for a passenger through a website. This form of ticketing is rapidly replacing the old paper tickets. It exists only as a digital record in the transportation industry.
- Graphics: This is the picture that computers display. Not text but just about everything else.
- Internet: Internet (international network of computer) is a system of computer network connected to one another from different parts of the world, forming a very large network. Internet is an example of global area network.
- Online: This is when something is connected to a computer or controlled by a computer or to the Internet.
- Protocol: This is the agreed method computer used to communicate with each other. It can be also define as a convention or agreement between the operating system of two machines on what messages may contain.
- Reservation: This means arranging for a seat, ticket to be kept for the use of a particular person.
- Server: This is a program or a computer that responds to request from other program and delivers the requested document. It can also be defined as a central computer that supervises the control of the network activities of other computer on a network.
- Transportation: Is the means of traveling from one place to another.
- WebPages: This is an individual page on the Internet. Every time you click on a link you are taken to a new web page.