This research is on Development of an expert system for human nutrition analysis. Expert system for human nutrition analysis is an expert system for diagnosing, controlling, and monitoring human nutrition. The system assesses the physical characteristics of the user to determine their nutritional status and makes recommendations for reaching nutritional requirements and a balanced diet, as a consequence generating a knowledge database with the nutritional status and dietary habits for the user. The system generates challenges, alerts, and constantly motivates the user to use the application and improve their nutritional habits. The expert system is implemented using the C Expert System Shell, libraries Laboratories 2012 and the C programming language running as a Web Service on a Window Web Server. The system calculates the BMI, Body Mass Index, as in Eq. 1 OMS 2012, the ideal weight and physical contexture, frame size Rivas 1991 and uses dietary information from Bermudez 2012. This is our base for nutritional diagnosis on the proposed system. This system will be developed for all users as a tool to improve their eating habits and nutritional wellbeing. The goal is to incorporate the use of this application into their daily lives and help them acquire and maintain healthier eating habits.
1.1 Background of Study
An expert system or electronic diagnose system is a software hardware system that attempts to reproduce the performance of one or more human experts, most commonly in a specific problem domain, and is a traditional application and/or subfield of artificial intelligence.
A wide variety of methods can be used to simulate the performance of the expert however common to most or all are
- The creation of a so called knowledgebase which uses some knowledge representation formalism to capture the subject matter experts SME knowledge.
- A process of gathering that knowledge from the SME and codifying it according to the formalism, which is called knowledge engineering. Expert systems may or may not have learning components but a third common element is that once the system is developed it is proven by being placed in the same real world problem solving situation as the human SME, typically as an aid to human workers or a supplement to some information system.
As a premiere application of computing and artificial intelligence, the topic of expert systems has many points of contact with general systems theory, operations research, business process reengineering and various topics in applied mathematics and management science.
Two illustrations of actual expert systems can give an idea of how they work. In one real world case at a chemical refinery a senior employee was about to retire and the company was concerned that the loss of his expertise in managing a fractionating tower would severely impact operations of the plant. A knowledge engineer was assigned to produce an expert system reproducing his expertise saving the company the loss of the valued knowledge asset. An early commercial success and illustration of another typical application a task generally considered overly complex for a human was an expert system fielded by DEC in the 1980s to quality check the configurations of their computers prior to delivery. The eighties were the time of greatest popularity of expert systems and interest lagged after the onset of the AI Winter.
In like manner, developing one of such system to represent the repository of the knowledge of a medical doctor is as essential as any other expert system. To this end, this project, Expert System for human nutrition analysis is a necessity.
It is also, necessary for human health risk to nutrition to be managed effectively, because malnutrition can cause deformed health status. In the next chapter the researcher will highlight more on human nutrition and analysis also on expert systems.
1.2 Statement of Research
The eating habits of todays Nigeria society are alarming. Obesity rates have increased making our country one of the most obese populations in the African region. Six in ten people suffer a disproportionate increase in their weight because their poor nutritional habits CACIA 2012. The prevalence of obesity, BMI > 30, is 59 percent Rosero 2009. Studies estimates Nigeria will be one of the ten most obese and mal-nutritional populations in the world by 2020 Euromonitor 2011.
This reality makes it essential to raise public awareness about the need for a much needed dietary improvement and encourage preventive care. Many people, and particularly students, cannot afford to consult a private nutritional expert Morales 2012. One problem in healthcare is the lack of availability for frequently health monitoring. Health software offers less expensive solutions reducing the physician patient physical relation and provides monitoring solutions. This system can help facilitate the distribution of nutritional information, learn to assess their own nutritional level, and acquire better eating habits to improve their current condition CIGA 2007 and Salud 2003.
Health care facility should be accessible by all at all times. But some of the people that should access these facilities are far removed from these facilities. More so, in the few available facilities, qualified medical personnel are always key issues that need urgent redress.
In view of the foregoing, it would be of great necessity to provide an expert system that will provide a complementary medical service such as human nutrition analysis system where it can be accessed and used by the masses,, also to places where medical attention accessibility is a problem as well as health care facilities where qualified experts are lacking, hence this topic, Expert System or electronic diagnosis system on nutrition.
1.3 Aim and Objective of Research
The following points serves as the aim and the objectives of this research work.
- To design a system an expert system that will be used in carrying out analysis on human nutrition.
- A system that will suggest for the user his normal and balanced nutritional diet.
- To develop modern interactive diagnostic expert system that will aid clinicians/medical personnel in diagnostic procedures.
1.4 Research Motivation
The researcher was motivated to research on this topic expert system for human nutrition analysis because of his encounter on same issues and due to the difficulties I had, before I could get an analysis of my nutrition, I had to go a long distance to a nearby clinic and then diagnose, while I was being diagnose by the doctor I had a thought what if I do such a system , one that can tell the human nutrition analysis an expert system from then onward I have seek for solution to my thoughts. Therefore, with this research work I hope to achieve my expectation.
1.5 Significance of Research
If this proposed prototype system is fully developed, will be very useful in many areas such as:
a. It will help to retain the skill of an expert medical doctor in case of any eventuality;
b. It can support academic development;
c. It can be useful in many hospitals, both private and government, cases where the expert is not on seat;
d. It can also be used in the laboratory for quick research work.
1.6 Scope of the Project
The scope of this work will include the following
- A dynamic database system that can act as a knowledge based system.
- A complete model of an expert system to portray sample analysis.
- This system is based on human nutrition analysis.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
The major constraint faced during the implementation of this work was finance. This is among other frustrations such as program failures during modular construction stages. Time was another important factor that limited the extent to which I want to research.
1.8 Definition of Terms/Variables
Diagnose: The identifying of an illness or disorder in a patient through physical examination, medical tests, or other procedures
Medical: Relating to medicine, physical examination to determine health: a physical examination by a doctor to check
Expert: somebody with a great deal of knowledge, skill, training, or experience in a particular field or activity a medical expert
Knowledge based: Information system that store wealth of ones knowledge
Artificial intelligence result when machines are made to thick. Artificial intelligence is a general term, which expert systems and robotics lie. The expert system technology has been necessitated by the fact that some human domain experts delay some wonderful skill, which is lost whenever they die thereby leaving the future generation with little or nothing to inherit from their wonderful skill. Hence they need the expert knowledge of a human being in a domain of activity to be stored in the computer such that computer mimic the reasoning of the expert in some way reaching the same decisions or conclusion as the expert himself and effectively replacing him.
Expert System: According to Daniel L. Stotink and his friends in a book computer and applications an introduction to data processing expert system is also a knowledge based system. It is a complex software program, designed to imitate the thought processes and decision making patterns of human experts in a given field. The expert system is an offspring of artificial intelligence AI and it is developed using the programming techniques of A1. when the expert knowledge of human being in a domain of activity is stored in the computer. Such that the computer repository of this expert knowledge in some way, reaching the same conclusion as the expect himself and efficiently replacing him, an expert system or knowledge based system results.
Nutrition: nutrition is the combination of processes by which the living organism receives and use the food materials necessary for growth maintenance of function and repair components parts
Nutrition: A science of food and its relationship to health and concerned with the part played by food factor nutrients in body growth, development and maintenance.
Protein: Protein is a body building material for all body parts, such as muscle, brain, blood skin, hair, nails, bones and body fluids, which constitutes about 20 of the adult body weight and made up of amino acids which main sources are from animal source like milk, eggs, meat, fish, cheese etc., and plant sources like pulses, cereals, beans, nuts, soya beans etc.
Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social challenges.
Diet: In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism especially a balanced food having all the nutrients needed by the body system.