IMPACTS OF PORNOGRAPHIC FILMS ON NIGERIAN YOUTH IN NIGERIA
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROND OF THE STUDY This study ?The effects of pornographic materials on youths? aim at identifying the influences of pornographic materials on the youth, with particular emphasis on the youth in two Nigeria Tertiary institutions. The study will be able to ascertain whether the widely held view that pornographic materials do not have adverse effect on the moral and behavior of youths is true or not. However, this study will narrow down to pornographic films only. In view of the foregoing films began in the minds of people who came long before the film pioneers them. In attempt to capture and recreate motion can be traced too when civilization began, the care drawing which showed a horse with eight legs the fleeting arrow from a hunter?s bow and even carefully detailed drawing of kings with one foot outstretched to suggest or walking motion. Bither j.r (1989) said that history Is somewhat not clear as who deserved glory of inventing still motion pictures, but that Willam Dickson and Thomas Edison were associated with the effects to move. The earliest forms of pornographic film were seen in France during the 1920s. the development in France brought about fun and all sorts of condemnation from the public. For instance Dellu cinema practitioner and also a French man said that the exhibition of such pornographic films contributed to melancholy fatal condition social and other negative attitude among the people. Down here in Nigeria, pornographic films started pervading our country in the late sixties and became more rampant in the early seventies. Today pornographic films have become so prevalent that access to them is with reckless abandon. ?Film? according to Black Africa greatest film producer Ousmance senibene is tool or communicator of social change and culture? he went further to stress that ?A film is but a driving belt, a vehicle that convey an idea and by this we will see that communication knowledge and ideas help people make their own decisions about the environment they live in. More so, film is categorized under mass media. Therefore, associated with the enormous influence of the mass media. To buttress this, Walter Lippman (1922) also said that the media do not only tell the people what to think but also what to think about. That is to say the media shapes the picture in our heads. Inferentially, there is no consensus of opinion on the power and capabilities of pornographic films or media to propagate sexual abuse, crime, violence etc. among youths by way of projecting such message to them. The stand which one takes on this issue depends on individual perception and indeed prepositions towards the controversial topic. But the air of this research is to investigate this issue scientifically keeping emotion aloof. That is to find out if there is any relationship between youths exposure to media portrayals of pornographic film and sexual pervasion / abuse among the youth. 1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBELMS Undoubtedly social scientists who are interested in the study of mass media particularly films effects have been involved in the effects to find out the relationship between media and anti-social behaviors like crime, violence, sexual pervasion, abuse, rape. There has been series of researches and counter researches which shows that audio-visual media can be described as an all powerful all pervasive and all manipulative medium capable of producing the most vociferous outburst through the portrayal of pornography, violence and other immoral acts thus Therefore this project is geared towards ascertaining if sexual crimes pervasion and abused among the youths could be attributed to their exposure to pornographic films. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This study is aimed at the following ? To find out the various reasons why youths watch pornographic films ? To determine the extent to which the youths respond or practice behaviors acquired form viewing pornographic films ? To proffer useful suggestion and recommendations in this area of study. 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study in question is very important to the Nigeria society especially now that we witness all sort of negativity tendencies among our youth. Therefore, the researchers hold the view that there do exist significant effect of pornographic films on youths. The significance of this study therefore is as follows. ? To examine how pornography films negatively affect the youth so that the government and society at large can control and eradicate them. ? To ascertain how effective the various existing laws aimed at controlling pornographic films have been faring in the responsibilities assigned to them. ? To find out if the sexual pervasion among the youths could be attributed to their exposure to pornographic films ? To contribute to the already existing knowledge in the area of study. 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION ? Do audience exposure to pornographic films have effect on them ? Do pornographic films tend to prompt the youths to replicate what they have reviewed ? Can sexual pervasion/abuse that are prevalent in our society today, among the youths be related to their exposure to pornographic films ? Do youth exposure to pornographic films have negative or positive effects on them. 1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS Hi: Audience exposure to pornographic films have some effect on them Ho: Audience exposures to pornographic films do not have any effects on them H2: Pornographic films prompt the youths to replicate what they have viewed Ho: Pornographic films do not prompt the youths to replicate what they have viewed. H3: Sexual pervasion and abuse among the youths are related to their exposure to pornographic films Ho: Sexual pervasion and abuse among the youth are not related to their exposure to pornographic films H4: Audience exposures to pornographic films have negative effects on them. Ho: Audience exposures to pornographic films do not have negative effects on them. 1.7 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION. The variable for this study, ?the effects of pornographic materials on youth? are conceptual defined as follows EFFECT CONCEPTUAL DEFINED The conceptual definition of effects is the impression produced on the mind of a spectator, bearer, reader viewer etc. EFFECT OPERATIONALLY DEFINE The operational definition of effects is as follow Positive effect Neutral effects Negative effect Positive Effects: This refers to these effects which are in line with the accepted social standards and values or which tends to encourage the development of the youths along this line Negative Effects: This refers to those effects which discourage the youths from developing alone accepted societal standards and values. Several types of behavioral and emotional responses of a relative or anti- social nature of youths may be associated with exposures to pornographic films Neutral Effects: This refers to those effects which are neither positive nor negative. It is a condition whereby exposures to pornographic films do not have any effects on youths. PORNOGRAPHIC MATERIALS CONCEPTUAL DEFINED The conceptual definition of pornographic materials are the representation of erotic behaviors in books, pictures, statues, motion pictures etc. that is intended to cause sexual excitement. PORNOGRPAHIC MATERIALS OPERATIONALLY DEFINED The operational definition of pornographic materials is films that are made solely for sexual arousement and featuring nudity and explicit sexual acts. YOUTHS CONCEPTUAL DEINED A person who has the quality or characteristics of the young e.g. youthful freshness or rigor, youthful wantonness, folly or rashness, youthful appearance or aspect. 1.8 ASSUMPTION In determining the effects of pornographic materials on youth this research makes the following assumptions. ? That the youths in question are normal and are not mentally related and can also reason properly ? That youths are exposed to and do view pornographic films ? That the pornographic films on media and to which the youth are exposed to either, directly or indirectly affect them. ???????????
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