Abstract This project goes into a detailed evaluation of tricycles as public means of the transport system in an urban area with a particular reference to Ipata-Sango, Ilorin metropolis selected as the case study. The project reviews existing literature on Tricycle ( Keke Napep) within Ipata-Sango, Ilorin. Inclusive are the circumstances that led to the invention of this medium as well as the drawbacks encountered in the past. However the finding of the research work base on the evaluation of Tricycle as public means of transport system indicates the present operational but attached to this are a few shortcomings caused by both Kwara State Government, the Tricycle transport agency, and tricyclists or operators. Also is the shortcoming of management and staff leading to inefficiency in the system. With the full study on all these drawbacks, it`s now suggested that the running of the corporation should be given to competent personnel base on merits and qualifications with less intervention by the State Government into the financial and operational capabilities. In addition, the management/staff is suggested to be encouraged and developed by giving incentives and training in their course of service years. Above all the research work poses to be more effective in planning and monitoring all aspects of Safety. If it is done continuously, therefore it serves a means of redressing areas where there are deficiencies.
|Settings||Evaluation of tricycle as a public transport system in an urban area remove||Comparing the compressive strength of concrete made with sand as fine aggregate and with chipping dust as fine aggregate remove||A REVIEW ON THE IMPACT OF FLOOD ON LAND UTILIZATION IN NIGERIA remove||Effect of street trading on traffic performance and control remove||An investigation in to the causes of cracks in building and possible solutions - a case study of Kukar Gesa community in Katsina metropolis remove||Assessment of surface water contamination from anthropogenic activities - a case study of Gogo stream, Offa local government area, Kwara State remove|
|Name||Evaluation of tricycle as a public transport system in an urban area remove||Comparing the compressive strength of concrete made with sand as fine aggregate and with chipping dust as fine aggregate remove||A REVIEW ON THE IMPACT OF FLOOD ON LAND UTILIZATION IN NIGERIA remove||Effect of street trading on traffic performance and control remove||An investigation in to the causes of cracks in building and possible solutions - a case study of Kukar Gesa community in Katsina metropolis remove||Assessment of surface water contamination from anthropogenic activities - a case study of Gogo stream, Offa local government area, Kwara State remove|
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|Content||Abstract This project goes into a detailed evaluation of tricycles as public means of the transport system in an urban area with a particular reference to Ipata-Sango, Ilorin metropolis selected as the case study. The project reviews existing literature on Tricycle ( Keke Napep) within Ipata-Sango, Ilorin. Inclusive are the circumstances that led to the invention of this medium as well as the drawbacks encountered in the past. However the finding of the research work base on the evaluation of Tricycle as public means of transport system indicates the present operational but attached to this are a few shortcomings caused by both Kwara State Government, the Tricycle transport agency, and tricyclists or operators. Also is the shortcoming of management and staff leading to inefficiency in the system. With the full study on all these drawbacks, it`s now suggested that the running of the corporation should be given to competent personnel base on merits and qualifications with less intervention by the State Government into the financial and operational capabilities. In addition, the management/staff is suggested to be encouraged and developed by giving incentives and training in their course of service years. Above all the research work poses to be more effective in planning and monitoring all aspects of Safety. If it is done continuously, therefore it serves a means of redressing areas where there are deficiencies.||Abstract Common river sand is expensive due to the excessive cost of transportation from natural sources. Also, large-scale depletion of these sources creates environmental problems. As environmental transportation and other constraints make the availability and use of river sand less attractive, a substitute or replacement product for concrete industry needs to be found. River sand is most commonly used fine aggregate in the production of concrete poses the problem of acute shortage in many areas. Whose continued use has started posing serious problems with respect to its availability, cost, and environmental impact. In such a situation the Quarry rock dust can be an economic alternative to the river sand. Quarry Rock Dust can be defined as residue, tailing or other non-voluble waste material after the extraction and processing of rocks to form fine particles less than 4.75mm. Usually, Quarry Rock Dust is used in large scale on the highways as a surface finishing material and also used for manufacturing of hollow blocks and lightweight concrete prefabricated Elements. Use of Quarry rock dust as a fine aggregate in concrete draws serious attention of researchers and investigators. This paper presents the feasibility of the usage of Quarry Rock Dust as hundred percent substitutes for Natural Sand in concrete. Tests were conducted on cubes to study the strength of concrete made of Quarry Rock Dust and the results were compared with the Natural Sand Concrete. An attempt has also been made to durability studies on Quarry Rock Dust when compared with the Natural Sand concrete. It is found that the compressive, flexural strength and Durability Studies of concrete made of Quarry Rock Dust are nearly 10% more than the conventional concrete.||CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Floods are the most frequent of the natural hazards globally (40%) followed by tropical hurricanes (20%), earthquakes (15%) and drought (15%) (Burton et al., 1978). In terms of global distribution, Miller (1997) observed that the majority of floods (44%) occur in Asia, 27% in America, 13% in Africa, 10% in Europe and 5% in Oceania. Natural disasters? associated annual economic losses increased from US$75 billion in the 1960s to US$659.9 billion in the 1990s without including indirect losses (Chen, 2007). At country level, among all the natural hazards in Nigeria, floods pose the greatest threat to the property, safety and economic well being of human communities (Brody et al., 2007). When quantifying flood loss, Nelson (2008) found out that, throughout the last century, flooding has been one of the most costly disasters in terms of both property damage and human casualties to the extent that the 1993 Mississippi River flood in Midwest killed 47 people with economic loss ranging between US$15 and US$20 billion. In Nigeria, more than 50% of all natural disasters are related to weather, climate and water (WMO, 2007). Natural changes as well as those brought on by development activities affect flood plains and there is need to understand and to identify appropriate development and natural resource management practices for these areas. Although development planners have the knowledge on how often, on the average, the flood plain will be covered by water, for how long, and at what time of the year, but lack of space for the expansion of urban settlement and the rapid rise in population even in rural areas has increased demand for land which has resulted in encroachment into the floodplains (Australian Government, 2008). Most urban and rural authorities do not have the necessary finances to put up the necessary flood mitigation measures in the flood plains or even plan the rural settlements properly so that they reduce losses associated with flooding events (Chen, 2007). Therefore delineating floodplains and other areas subject to flooding is a valuable input for proposing compatible development activities. Although flooding cannot be wholly prevented, its impacts can be reduced through appropriate planning and management. Damaging effects of flood disaster on lives and property can be reduced by structural (dams and weirs) and non-structural (legal instruments, public education, forecasting and early warning systems and rescue operations) measures. Despite the structural flood mitigation measures being in place, communities in the flood prone areas of Nigeria are still being adversely impacted on by the floods. Non-structural measures encourage living with floods and emphasis is on regulation of human activities through land use plans. There is therefore need to reduce the flood impacts on ecosystems and human settlements through flood hazard mapping. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is one of the techniques that can be used in flood level forecasting and management in order to assist in the reduction of human and economic losses through the delineation of the areas at risk of being flooded. Institutions such as the World Bank (WB) and the recently developed Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) regional water policy are recommending land use plans which are a proactive flood mitigation measure. An assessment of the flooding event by the community coupled with GIS provides valuable input in policy formulation to reduce vulnerability and strengthen people?s capacity to cope with the disaster or risk they may be facing (Meijerink et al., 1994). The temporal and spatial pattern of floods is attributed to several factors of global change. The relentless land use/cover change (LUCC) can affect flood propagation (Di Baldassarre et al. 2009), flood volume, flood frequency, flood peak (Deasy et al), stream flow regime. It therefore poses challenges to the existing flood emergency and disaster management and planning efforts. Undoubtedly, an effective planning and implementation of flood disaster management and mitigation system requires and can benefit from a greater understanding of the effect of LUCC. However, determining the relationship between flood and LUCC is not an easy task. Detecting the effects of changing land use/cover on flood characteristics can be complicated by collection and interpretation of LUCC over a sufficiently long time period, selection and implementation of a suitable flood analytical tool at basin level and the linkage between the above two. Recent development of 2D hydraulic modeling at large scale basins. Grunfest (1995) argues that due to high poverty levels, people have become more vulnerable because they live in hazardous areas including flood plains and steep hills. They have fewer resources which makes them more susceptible to disasters .They are less likely to receive timely warnings. Furthermore, even if warnings were issued, they have fewer options for reducing losses in a timely manner. The poverty level affects the resilience and process of recovery from disasters. Disaster mitigation, preparedness and prevention needs to address socio-economic issues not only geological and meteorological aspects. 1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The problem which this study addressed is the impact of floods on the utilization of land in Ibadan, Oyo state. The study area is in a low-lying, severely flood prone area (wetlands). Most of the communities targeted in the area are located along the Apete Bridge, Ibadan which. The population along the areas of the bridge which causes flood during heavy rainfall has grown over the years. More than 8,000 people live in this area. The area has suffered floods for a consecutive rainfall seasons The floods caused displacement of people from their usual dwelling places resulting into varying impacts on infrastructure, environment as well as damage to property causing huge traffic amidst the car passengers in the area. 1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1. To examine the environmental effect of flood in the Ibadan areas of Oyo state, its challenges and management. 2 By examining the dimension and causes of flooding in the metropolis 3. Examining the role of city authorities in the management of flood. 4. To have an under spot assessment of flood prone zones in the cities with a view of suggesting ways of tackling them. 5. To assess the effects flood has on the utilization of land in the areas of the case study. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The following questions were posed in line with the objectives of the study 1. What are the causes of flooding in the metropolis? 2. What are the environmental effects of flood in the Ibadan areas of Oyo state? 3. What are the roles of city authorities in the management of flood? 4. Does flood has any effect on the utilization of land in the areas of the study? 5. What are the ways of managing flood in the study? 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study is important because it assesses and estimates the effects of the floods on the utilization of land. The study also endeavors to establish the underlying causes of flood in Ibadan community. More importantly, it is envisaged that the outputs of the study will be key inputs in the designing of sustainable mitigation measures to minimize the impact of floods and the associated risks. 1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY The study is limited to areas in the Ibadan community, Oyo State. It is chosen as the area in carrying out the research in this project and all research done within the study are limited to the aforementioned area. Due to the problem of time and money, the researcher may also encounter certain other limitations such as the problem of having to manage class work with the research work as well as the problem of gathering enough materials for the study. But in spite of this, the researcher will make sure that all this problems are managed well in order to come up with a good result that can be a plus to the area of study.||Abstract The solid base of this project is the effect of street trading on traffic performance and controls: a case study of Offa Town particularly, Owode Market and Oloffa Way. It comprises of five chapters in which each of the chapters analyzed the view of the project. Chapter one deals with the introduction of the project, the causes and the shortcomings of street trading, the aim and objectives, statement of the problem, justification, scope of the study and description of the study area. Also include in this chapter the methodology, that is, the methods employed to acquired information and data, Chapter two based on the literature review of the project, the causes and effect of obstruction of traffic flow, which is the effect of parking, street trading and delay on traffic performance, the description of the project areas, past effort made on the problem. Chapter three, this deals with the collection of data, the studies of the behavior of the parties involved, that is, the traders, drivers, and pedestrians. Also included the opinions gathered through the questionnaires. Chapter four is totally based on the analysis and designs of data collected. Chapter five presents the conclusion and recommendation suggested the problems.||Abstract Cracking in structures is of common occurrence and engineers are often required to look into their causes and to carry out suitable repairs and remedial measures. For repairs and remedies to be effective, it is appropriate have proper understanding of various causes of cracking, to classify damage in structural buildings. The aim is to investigate types of cracks and their courses ponding severity through subjective rating and thus proffer method of controlling faults/cracks in buildings. Laboratory tests were conducted and some of the engineering properties of the soil were determine. The coefficient of permeability of the three samples is found to be 2.2170, 2.0670. 2.0403 x 10-4 cm/s and the average coefficient of permeability (K) is 2.1081x 10-4 cm/s. The average shear strength of the three samples is 102.24KN/M2. The ultimate bearing capacity is 613kN/m, the cohesion intercept C is 16.34kN/m2 and the angle of internal friction Ø is 7.490. the coefficient of consolidation CV is 0.0198cm2/min.||Abstract Water constitutes one of the most precious natural resources without which no form of livelihood is possible. Good quality water is needed to maintain ecological balance and for economic development activities, but scarcity of water is increasing, hence planning, monitoring and management of these natural resources should be undertaken. Therefore quality and quantity of accessible water must be studied so as to make possible the concept of sustainable development. The water sample from the case study contains average chlorine, manganese, Alkalinity, Irons and low bacteria counts are suitable for drinking, and it is assumed useful for other purposes such as sanitary and domestic works, By purifying it. Chemical contents of the stream sample were within the recommended limit of World Health Organization (WHO) but PH and Alkalinity were slight near the limit but cannot cause diseases to humans as the chemical usually affected water colour and taste. Therefore, surface water in Offa local government area, Kwara State is suitable for its consumption this research paper relied on World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limit as reference. The government should ensure that proper waste disposal mechanisms are incorporated to reduce the effects of surface water contamination from disposal wastes.|