CHAPTER ONE Background information Mass media messages are often referred to those directed at a large group of person by means of an electronic medium involving the dissemination of information, knowledge and entertainment to a large diverse, sometimes homogenous but mostly heterogeneous audience. For any human society, the successful conduct of its internal and external affairs depends largely on the extent to which information is disperse and shared, the need for information is such that man can hardly function or determine the course of their life without communication (Dickson, 2005). It is in the light of this that the critical role of the media is captured in its impulsive tendency to direct and redirect the course of altitudinal change and building public perception towards societal affairs. This is a clear indication of how much the media are drench in the society. A good deal of support in common sense and evidence establishes a relationship of interdependence between the media and the society within which it operates and whose characteristics it often assumes, this relationship assumes two perspectives. Firstly, that the mass media are aspect of the society and as such as McQuail (2006) opines, are dependent on economic and power structure of the society and can be controlled or limited by those who own them. Secondly by their content, media are assumed to have potentials for significant influence and that the particular ideas and values conveyed by the media can exert significant social change regardless of the nature of ownership. Going by the position of the second perspectives of the media, a clear indication suggest great emphasis on the influence of media production and reception on social factors, suggesting that media messages function to influence its immediate physical environment. According to Rodney (2009), the media in performance of their traditional function of editorializing, information, correlation and socialization, participates in the social life of the society. Now let?s take a closer look at some of the key concepts around which this study is built, one of which is journalism which may well not be an alien term for many, especially those within the spectra of media, but for the purpose of scholarship, it is worthwhile to provide a workable definition for journalism that is in alignment with the topic of the this research study. According to Sambe (2005:230) journalism is a report of things as they appear at the moment of writing, not a definitive study of situation. Journalism has also been regarded as the activity or product of journalist or others engaged in the presentation of written, visual or audio materials intended for dissemination through public media with reference to factual, ongoing events of public concern, it is intended to inform the society about occurrences and to uncover that which would otherwise be unknown (i.e investigative journalism). It is the views of Harcup (2004), that Journalism entails creating and directing messages at consumers of the media who may comprise non-specific general audience or narrower market segment. Drawing similarities from the earlier concepts elucidated above, Sport journalism therefore can be viewed from Steve?s (2001) perspective, which he opines, is a form of writing that reports on sporting topics, events and games, often regarded as an unserious genre of journalism because the journalist within this concern are considered to be concerned with less serious topics covered by the news desk. However, sport journalism has grown in significance as sport itself as grown in wealth, power and influence. Sport journalism in the views of Steen (2007) covers writings and reports about amateur and professional sports, sport journalism in print medium provide detailed previews of upcoming events and post-game analysis in addition to extensive updates of game scores, player statistics and team standings. In the same vein, broadcast sport journalism provides real-time reporting and commentary of sporting events for television and radio broadcast. Sports are said to deal with physical activities with well set rules and regulations. From the set of rules, winners emerge and such winners attract reward from both the private sectors and public sector. This is a clear indication of the increased value of sport (Nwanne, 2010). Sports promote sustainable physical fitness and good health, social mobilization, harmony and national integration. It provides entertainment, enhances the international image of a country, creates employment opportunities, enhances education and promotes tourism and culture. Sports is an organized physical and recreational activities which is geared at facilitating human and material resources for intrinsic and extrinsic values, sports has become globally acknowledged as a potential tool for national and economic development. Nations of the world therefore endeavor to utilize their potentials in sports to enhance the attainment of their respective development objectives. The most important change that has taken place in the sport industry is the significant role the media are playing in the development of sports all over the world. Apart from the fact that the media has increased sports awareness and spectatorship among peoples of the world, it has also increased revenue generation which has enriched the various sports stakeholders. The media have been playing a catalyst role for the identification and the promotion of knowledge, information and understanding about various sports and sporting talent in various nations (Alimi, 2003).Acosta (2002) pointed out those competitive sports would only survive and develop with the cooperation of the media. It is for this reason that sports must enjoy good relationship with the press, radio, and television. The relationship should be effective, continuous, and personal and open (Morakinyo, 2010). In Nigeria, despite the abundance of human and material resources, the country is yet to optimize its full potentials in the area of sports. Several factors may be accountable for this state of affairs which may not exclude institutional, management and leadership challenges (Dickson, 2005). Nigeria is the most populous black nation in the world and most populous in Africa, with over 160 million people and an ocean of valuable oil flowing in its creeks, richly blessed to be the glowing light of the black race. However corruption and lack of proper accountability as well as Maladministration as been the cog in the wheel of the progress and development, regardless of what sector, the story is the same. With regards to sporting development, Nigerians, especially its sport officials and administrators to whom responsibilities of sport management and development has been entrusted to, have always been on the wrong end of appraisal, with huge criticism levied against them about the state of the nation?s dwindling sporting development rather than the otherwise, with ailing sporting facilities, lack of encouragement at the grass-root level and a culture of corruption that continues to swallow the inadequate funds channel to the sector (Eseka, 2012). Also, Nigerian athletes are hampered by a lack of funds and the national sport administration is in a state of shamble. This according to Chris Eseka, a veteran sport journalist, who believes the problem of sport development in Nigeria is mostly from the administrators rather than the fault of the athletes training with scarce facilities. Be that as it may, there exist evidence across the globe of nations with even worse state of sporting facilities, wrestling with an epileptic budget that were able to make a bold statement on the world stage when it mattered. The performance of the nation?s sporting athletes at the just concluded London 2012 Olympic games is a clear attestation to the abysmal level to which sporting development in the country is nose-diving out of glory and a pointer which glaringly proves that you reap only what you sow as evidently portrayed by the Team Nigerian athletes. It is also a further prove of the various accusations from stakeholders within the industry which clearly indicts the sport officials in the country who were expectant of any sporting medal without investing any meaningful input. They expected the dividends of sporting success which only comes with preparedness, investment and hard work (Gregory, 2012). The media at certain instances have also shared part of the spoils for promoting foreign sporting institutions and event rather than giving adequate attention to promoting indigenous sporting event, sport journalism in Nigeria have often be criticized to have tilted more towards covering European event and athletes than local talent promotion. Therefore asking questions of how well sport journalist understands their role to the development of sport in Nigeria. This study therefore intends to examine the critical role of sport journalism to the development of sports in Nigeria, looking at the sporting programmes and coverage of Oluyole Fm as its case study and also looking at the airtime allocated to different kinds of sports as well as the sporting event they give adequate coverage to and the outcome of such to that sport(s). 1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The study intends to find out how sport journalism has contributed to sport development in Nigeria. In specific terms it intends to: 1. Identify the responsibilities of sport journalists to sport development in Nigeria 2. Find out the level of coverage given to sporting events in Nigerian media. 3. Measure the effectiveness of sport journalism to sport development in Nigeria. 4. Identify the type of sport(s) activities covered by the Nigerian media. 1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Sport journalism is relatively a new and experimental genre of journalism for most developing countries like Nigeria, and may not have all the necessary condition for success. And so this research study will be of great importance to the generality of Nigerians who will want to venture into the practice of sport journalism or own and operate media houses that are purely to develop the nation?s sporting s Similarly, this research study will also serve to find out the responsibilities of sport writers to the development of sports in Nigeria, with a view to establish sport journalism as an important genre of journalism giving the increasing value of sport in our society. Thus, helping to make it an attractive career option for journalist. Furthermore, the study will also be relevant to other researchers as it will be providing the opportunity to know more on the benefit or otherwise of sport journalism and media coverage of sporting event as well as local talent promotion and exposure through sport in Nigeria. It will also serve as a guide to our national sport policy makers and future policy inquiry into the field of sport journalism and sport development, the possible recommendations made will be very useful to sport administrators and management of the various sporting associations or bodies in the country as will be highlighted in some of their operation. 1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The media in carry out their social responsibility and development role in sport development in Nigeria have been criticized for placing too much emphasis on European sporting promotion and culture to the detriment of indigenous games and talents, calling for a serious re-evaluation of the roles and obligations of sport journalist and media through self-regulation. However, looking at the nature of media ownership and the high cost of media production, industry watchers agree that practitioners have taken to profit maximization which finds a fertile ground in foreign sport portrayal on Nigerian media and the huge advert revenue it attracts for the media than in the local sporting events and activities, which is under-funded, ill equipped and lacks proper promotion, administration, management, branding and packaging. Meanwhile, there also exists the problem of Nigerian high taste for foreign input in the media, particularly sports; Nigerians prefer staying at their places of work with company of friends and families discussing the outcome of foreign sporting activities or even watching, rather than to pay or tune in to see their local athletes or sporting activities. Trends among scores of Nigerian media organization equally indicate the little concern and coverage allocated to sporting issues and events and even where such was the case, greater proportion of the stories are about global sporting stars and talents at the expense of our own home-bred professional. 1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study would primarily focus on the assessment of the contribution of sport journalism to sport development in Nigeria with a view to entrenching a culture of sport in Nigeria and in order to achieve this, the mass media are required to re-orient itself and review it role towards sport development in Nigeria, this is in recognition of the symbiotic relationship that exists between the media and sports. It will also focus on the examining and assessing the responsibilities of sport journalist to sporting development in Nigeria, raising ethical issues on modern practices as it relates to sport coverage and reporting with the increasing growth in the value of sport to any society as well as the overall assessment of the current level of effectiveness of sporting coverage?s and the type of sport that currently enjoys great media exhibition and promotion with a view to examine the impact of the attention on the sporting event and how such could translate to others (i.e. other sports) and bring about improved development of the sector. 1.6 BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CASE STUDY Oluyole 98.5FM is known as the radio arm of the broadcasting corporation of Oyo state established in 1976 while the television arm was founded in 1982. There are currently 4499 members of staff in the Broadcasting Corporation of the state. The Radio station operates under the license of terrestrial radio with the frequency 795MHZ-AM, 98.5MHZ. It educates, enlightens, entertains and disseminates information to the occupants of the state and beyond. The impact of Oluyole 98.5fm in developing sport in Nigeria cannot be underestimated as it brings it audience into the spirit of sports through sport programmes done every Wednesday and Saturdays between the periods of 12pm-12:30pm to spread various updates in the world of sport. The programme presented by Adekola Omotosho popularly known as king of boys uses the first fifteen minutes of the programme to discuss the local/national sport before advancing to the foreign aspect in the last or remaining fifteen of the programme. 1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS I. Analyze: to examine something in order to understand it better or discover more about it or to find out what something is made up of or identifying its constituent parts. II. Communication: the exchange of information between persons either by means of speaking, writing or using a common system of signs or behaviour. III. Contribution: this is something that one gives or does to help make something more successful or see to its growth. IV. Development: the process of growing, changing or making something to become better. V. Genre: a kind of art, literature, institution etc. That has a particular style or feature. VI. Investigative journalism: this is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate and immerse themselves into a single topic of interest, often involving crime, political corruption or corporate wrongdoings. VII Journalism: this is the act of gathering, processing and preparation of written, visual and audio material intended for dissemination by means of a public media. VIII. Mass media: communication media that reaches a large audience especially television, radio, newspaper and magazine. IX. Spectatorship: the act of watching or viewing an event, especially sporting events. X.Sport: a game or physical activity that you do for enjoyment or in order to compete against other people XI. Sportscaster: a broadcaster who specializes in reporting sporting activities or games. XII. Sport administration: the various activities involve in the management of sports, sporting institutions, promotion, athletes and brands. XIII. Sport development: all efforts geared towards the upliftment and improvement of sport and other sport related activity or institutions. XIV. Sport journalism: the activity of gathering and disseminating to a large audience through the mass media reports of sporting activities like, players statistics, live score etc. XV. Reporting: to find out facts and tell people about them in print or broadcast media or to give information about something that happened.