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Broadcast media tools for effective rural development

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Abstract

This research writing looks at The study is a critical examination of the role of broadcast media as tools for effective rural development. The rural means of communication is still the epitome for rural development. These broadcast medium of communication includes the following: radio, television and some modern means of communication such as the internet etc. However, both primary and secondary data will be used in gathering information for the study. The secondary data will come as a review of documented materials, while the primary data will be obtained with the help of questionnaire and oral interview, and will be administered to the rural dwellers with the help of the researcher, who will help the unlettered ones to fill in the boxes by explaining the questions to them. A total of 383 questionnaire will be distributed precisely to the Magaji of Oyun Village. The data collected will be tabulated and analyzed using percentages. The four hypotheses formulated will be tested using chi-square method respectively. The findings of the study will show among others that the broadcast media is a tool for effective rural development.

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SettingsBroadcast media tools for effective rural development removeEffect of public relations on the consumer (a case study of premier breweries plc) removeTHE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE RADIO AS AN AGENT OF SOCIAL MOBILIZATION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES. (A CASE STUDY OF ANAMBRA STATE) removeINFLUENCE OF TELEVISION ADVERTISING ON CONSUMER CHOICE OF BEVERAGES (A CASE STUDY OF CARBURY) removeTHE EFFECTS OF UNETHICAL PRACTICES IN ADVERTISING:(A CASE STUDY OF VITAFOAM IN NIGERIA) removeThe Effects of Television Commercials on Buying Habits of Enugu Metropolis ( A Case Study of Omo and Elephant Detergents ) remove
NameBroadcast media tools for effective rural development removeEffect of public relations on the consumer (a case study of premier breweries plc) removeTHE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE RADIO AS AN AGENT OF SOCIAL MOBILIZATION IN RURAL COMMUNITIES. (A CASE STUDY OF ANAMBRA STATE) removeINFLUENCE OF TELEVISION ADVERTISING ON CONSUMER CHOICE OF BEVERAGES (A CASE STUDY OF CARBURY) removeTHE EFFECTS OF UNETHICAL PRACTICES IN ADVERTISING:(A CASE STUDY OF VITAFOAM IN NIGERIA) removeThe Effects of Television Commercials on Buying Habits of Enugu Metropolis ( A Case Study of Omo and Elephant Detergents ) remove
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DescriptionABSTRACT Through survey research method. This study focused on the effectiveness of the radio as an agent of social mobilization in rural communities, using a case study of Anambra state. The primary objective of this work boiled down from examining the various ways by which the effectiveness of the radio can serve as an agent for social mobilization in rural communities. Some problems were highlighted, like using the radio to restore hope in hopeless situation the radio can be used in carrying out a new social order for the rural communities, taken their suggestion about any issues. This work equally solve some problem on how to use radio effectively to achieve the desired impact and improve the work of the radio as an agent of social mobilization.ABSTRACT The world provides a competing for environment for firm competing for consumers chike of their product. yet consumers have the right to decide on what form of information they will respond to this research work is to examine critically influence of television Advertising on consumers choice of beverage plc. This research has the core objective of determining whether television advert has an influence on consumers choice, if there are factors, which can influence consumers choice and if advertising bring about brand loyalty in the course of this project, the researcher adopts survey research method with questionnaires as 600 used for this study. The sampling technique used is sample random sampling among the findings of this project is that television advertising influence most consumers, choice of beverages like carbury and also noted that television advertising alone could not perform all the task of influencing consumers in their choices of beverages. However, the major recommendation put forth is that no television station should down play advertising of the products especially carbury and as much as possible the price of the product should be emphasized on during advertising to capture consumers interestABSTRACT This study is on the effects of unethical practices in advertising:(a case study of Vitafoam in Nigeria). Our country, Nigeria is more of a capitalist state and everyone in his kind of business wants to maximize profit. By the way of negligence of the ethical standards, some advertisers, regardless of the decency, truthfulness and social values which advertising upholds stick to unethical advertising practice, thus, causing loss of lives, discomfort, and dissatisfaction to the consumers of some goods and services. In the words of Ifedayo Daramola (1999) “a number of advertisements carried by Nigerian newspapers, radio and television are illegal and libelous; while some contain malice” This work has been structured in five chapters to make an ideal project. Chapter one embodies background of the study, which deals on advertising in its entirely. The chapter two of this work, made an indepth review of related literatures. These literatures bother on enhancing social responsibility through advertising, the power of persuasive communication in advertising, factors affecting buying behaviour, the theoretical framework and measures to enhance ethical standards in advertising practice. The third chapter covers the methodology with which the study is carried on. In this regard, the sample survey technique was chosen. The technique evaluated the description of research population, sample and sampling techniques, instrument of data collection, techniques of data collection and limitations of the methodology. In chapter four, the presentation and interpretation of data collected is done. This is based on description of data according to its relevance to a given research question. Also, discussion and interpretation of results are carefully made.
ContentAbstract
This research writing looks at The study is a critical examination of the role of broadcast media as tools for effective rural development. The rural means of communication is still the epitome for rural development. These broadcast medium of communication includes the following: radio, television and some modern means of communication such as the internet etc. However, both primary and secondary data will be used in gathering information for the study. The secondary data will come as a review of documented materials, while the primary data will be obtained with the help of questionnaire and oral interview, and will be administered to the rural dwellers with the help of the researcher, who will help the unlettered ones to fill in the boxes by explaining the questions to them. A total of 383 questionnaire will be distributed precisely to the Magaji of Oyun Village. The data collected will be tabulated and analyzed using percentages. The four hypotheses formulated will be tested using chi-square method respectively. The findings of the study will show among others that the broadcast media is a tool for effective rural development.
This work is a study of the effect of public relations on the consumer. It users premier breweries Plc as a case of study. The research has employed oral interview for the collection of data this millennium. The work establishes the effect of public relations on the consumer. The work also offers a useful suggestion on how to transform the effects of public relations on the consumer into the contemporary use. Finally, the are useful summary recommendations and conclusion in the study which will be of help to scholars who could undertake studies relating to the topic.CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Introduction The exposition of principles for this study boils down to the fact on any mobilization effort going in the country or within a geographical area which radio becomes an important instrument for social mobilization. The main content of radio is not designed to challenge or modify the social and political structure of nation either in a non-party state or in a democratic society. This effort of radio stemmed in emphasizing the ability of view presented in the media. Which emphasize the fundamental impact of control. The enlightenment of radio programme introduced by the military regime of late general Sani Abacha was to carry out a new social order and towards the enthronement of fourth republic in a situation where most Nigerians have lost faith in military toward a sincere transition programme as a result of the latest statement of 3rd republic. The radio become a necessary instrument to let people know all things that is happening. Bringing to the notice in radio programme the rural communities agency (R.C.A) was established by Late General Sani Abacha administration in 1995 on the ashes of the radio mobilization for social justice, economic recovery and self reliance (MAMSTER) agency radio serves as instruments for control with the study in the so-called new nation of Africa. According to Donald A. Hobbs and Stuartly Blank (1986) of increasing significance in modern time is the influence of radio in the form of available literature and sit television programme. The mass media can be used both to promote social stability and to effect special change. Its effectiveness his on its ability to reach masses of people immediately at once and in dealing with people regardless of the race or geographical location. It is very necessary in teaching the people extensively and making the people to feel the impact of what is going on in their country or to feel the programme you are intending to introduce. This is where the radio come in, because no society exist in vacuum and as such making people to feel the impact of what you are doing which is necessary to achieve he desired effect. Consequently the Nigeria radio channel area not vibrant to its zineth, the journalist works tooth and nail to make the Nigeria media performance an excellence in performing the duty of social mobilization the attitude toward Nigerian should be known by effectiveness of radio as an agent of social mobilization. Daniel Learner (1968: Pg 50) posited in standard of living urbanization, literacy and exposure to the radio during the process of transition from traditional to modern society. According to W.I Thamas (1995:pg 17) He said the native language of radio supplied an important element of group integration and a linkage to wider community. 1.2 Background Information of Rural Communities Agent The communities Agency (R.C.A) was established by Late General Sani Abacha administration in (1996) on the reason of Mass Mobilization for social justice Economic recovery. Self reliance (MAMSER) in carrying out a new social order for the country. The agency was mandated by the government to ensure that all this polices and programme are carried to the people as quickly, fast and effectively as much as the following can be seen to be functions of (R.C.A) a) To serve as a bridge between the government and the people. b) To ensure that the policies and programmes of the government are explained and communicated to the masses of the country. c) To intermediate the information gap between the government and the masses in the grassroots. d) To inform, educate and entertain the masses. e) To take the findings of the people living in the rural are and communicate them back to the government. f) To foster discipline and sense of belonging in the audience. g) To help in creating awareness of the government policies and programme. h) To promote culture and social order i) To help in the enlightment of the people based on the above function. It is difficulty for the rural communities agency to achieve the desired impact with the use of the radio. 1.3 Statement of Problem This research work is directed at the following problems. a) The problem of creating awareness to the grass root in a rural area. b) The problem of how to mobilize people toward a certain goal concerning the issue of social mobilization. c) The problem of how rural community Agency (RCA) can make their aspiration in knowing people of rural area their need. The above mentioned problems are the issues to be looked into in the cause of this subject work. The issue of creating awareness particularly to the grass roots who are largely hetrogenous, is not an easy task and should be a cause for concern for the agency in carrying out the onerous duty. Also the problem of effectively mobilizing the people is at the same time not an easy one, because different people has a different ways of responding to an issues. Equally radio on its part, will be trying to devise a means of making his aspirations known to the people without being accused of basic or necessarily an organ of propaganda. 1.4 Purpose of Study The purpose of this study is to find out how the activities of the radio affect the programme of the rural communities agency (R.C.A) the work which is focused in finding out how radio can be used effectively in mobilization effort in the country. Particularly a reference to Anambra State. Also to find out how (R.C.A) can be more productive in achieving the desired result using the radio as an instrument of mobilization. Moreover, emphasis on discovering specific reaction and change generated by media content which tends to produce a basic distortion or limitation in their findings. 1.5 Significance of Study The need and important for this study is to stress the fact that the press is an indomitable concept of the rural communities agency (R.C.A) which is meant in achieving the desired impact intended, it is also intended to highlight how the radio can be used in mobilization effort to build a harmonious relationship between the masses and the government. Also the study intend to stress the importance of radio as an instrument of hope restoration in a hopeless situation life the perilous time of military regime. Also the radio can be veritable vehicle to carry information from the government to the people. Which brought about possibility of a good organized information flow throughout the country. 1.6 Research Questions a) To what extend does the role of radio affect any social mobilization effort?. b) Does any role played by radio in crisis situation affect the reaction of the people in the situation? c) To what extend can the radio be used in mobilization effort in carrying out a new social order ? 1.7 Limitation of Study In the cause of carrying out this study, this following problems arose, they are: 1) The non co-operation of all respondent: In this case not all the respondent co-operated to the study of cause; out of 350 questionnaire, it was only 300 that was responded and this is one of the factor in contribution to the rise of problem in carrying out this study. 2) Financial constraint: Due to excruciating financial handicap and economic problem. The researchers went through some financial draw back in the process of gathering data for conclusive project work, money for travel to area where the data for this project work could be obtained is lacked, money for buying books for reference purpose, money for typing and binding the whole project work, infact money is needed in all aspect to carry out this work into completeness. 3) Time: Limited time is also another factor that militate against this study this time issue is also the problem which the researcher of this work faced in act of putting together this work. The time allotted for us the students for completion and submission of this project work was so short that the researcher tears that it may affect the reliability and validity of this research work if totality of research was to be considered. 1.8 Scope of Study This research work only focused and covered the activities of the rural communities Agency (R.C.A) of grass root levels in Anambra state of Nigeria pertaining its social mobilization effort and not the whole state in Nigeria or the entire country. 1.9 Definition of Terms The key words used in this research documentation are: a) RADIO: This refers or pertaining to electromagnetic wave with frequencies between those of infrared radiation and x-rays, hence, pertaining to broadcast radio. b) Effectiveness: This refers to the subject scores of the ability or power of the total understanding and appreciation of subject in its activeness in the desired effect. c) Electronic medium: It encompasses all form communication that are broadcast through the news radio and television. d) Print medium: This term comprises of all form of communication which is printed in visible form through the newspaper and magazine. e) Agent: The term agent have to do with human beings living as a group in a situation requiring that they should have dealing with one another. Like in social form. f) Mobilization: To be mobilized or to become organized and make ready for use or ready for required action. (R.C.A) this is an organ created by Late General Sani Abacha administration charged with the mandate or role of people acting as a vehicle of explaining government policies and programme to the people. g) Social mobilization: This involves the act of creating social awareness in people (i.e) letting people know the social operandi of a place. Which can be, cultural, political, economical, social etc. It can be for awaken old value or new value. h) Anambra: This is one of the South eastern state in Nigeria. The occupant of Anambra state is dominantly Igbo people, speaking Igbo language Anambra state is one of the 36 state in Nigeria that make up the Federal Republic of Nigeria.CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION The major purpose of advertising is to communicate, educate and market a product/ service, idea or cause, though a channel or media that is accessible to target audience. However, the marketing function recognizes the strategic value of advertising as an element of the promotional mixifirm use in selling their goods and services according to Ozoh (1998, p.13). Advertising is a distinct promotional element that serves as a bridge between the advertisers and the target market. Through advertising, the advertisers deliver his massage to the target market. Also in a mass market, where it is quite impossible to reach the multitude of prospects for a brand personally, advertising offers not only the cheapest means, but an effective way of entering into the targets consciousness to get them acquainted with the product with the product or services so there is need for advertisement in order to get the targets acquainted with the product or services. Moreover, many organizations or industries believe that advertising their products will command or attract many consumer for such product. The question now is, does television advertising on consumers choice of beverage using carbury as comparative study for this research. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The research under study orders on the topic “influence of television advertising on consumers choice of beverage”. Advertising pervades our lives. It is impossible to read newspaper, magazine, and journal or watch television, listen to radio or even travel the streets of our cities without being bombarded by commercial messages. Our country derives benefit from information about products and services. On the other side of the fence, companies with products or services to sell, regard advertising as a valuable and indeed indispensable marketing tool. a proximately 3% of the gross national product is currently devoted to advertising, so advertising is a large and essential way of doing business. research of old see broadcast audience (TV viewers)as passive, hence they provided the passivity theory or buller theory which states that the media has a powerful effect on the audience and this means that once the advertising message gets to audience, it has an immediate impact on them. however, later research has proved otherwise. it is true that some kinds of communication on some kinds of product brought to the attention of some kinds of people, under some kind of conditions have some kind of effect, according to berelson as cited in Nwosu (2005, p.40). This does not mean that the audience is not without their own eritical-mind on a product. Television advertisements have been found to be of immense benefits. Business organization involves them with advertisement in order to create awareness about their products and services and boost sales. By definition, advertising as the advertising practitioners council of Nigeria (APCON) defines it “is a form of communication through media about products, services, or ideas, paid for by an identified sponsor” (cited in Ozoh, 1998, p.1).Fletcher (1979) as cited by in Ozoh (1998,p.2) opines “it is the dissemination of sales message through purchase time and space. The authors of contemporary Advertising (Bovee and Arens 1986) define, it as the “non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about a products, services or ideas by an identified sponsor through the various media. Furthermore, advertising is a form of communication through the media about products, services, ideas, personalities or organizations, paid for by an identified sponsor. It is also a profession, a body of reminsee involved in the conceptualization, planning, creating, packaging and placing of advertising plays a major information role, making known available product and services to the intending consumers, and offering the products and services as attractively possible, thus enabling the consumer to make a choice, Wright and Warner(1997, p.2) opine that advertising has the unique function to create differentiation among product brands and services that are otherwise difficult to distinguish”. Advertising of a particular product that fails to live up to the expectations of the consumer will not be effective and thus, will not exert any influence. How true is the above assertion? To what extent do these television advertisements influence audience? Hence the relevance of this study: influence of television advertising on consumers’ choice of Beverage. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The primary aim of every business organization is to make profit and this profit in achieved through the patronage of the class of people the business organization regard as its primary customers. According to McDaniel (1996 p.1) Advertising is a method of impersonal communication using such media as the press, radio, Bill board, television and so on. However, there are a number of problems which need to be carefully stated before any decision can be made about whether to spend any money on advertising at all, let alone how to spend it. For example many people believe that advertising is a waste of money and that media expenditure would be better spending on personal selling. All these are issue in television advertising, hence the need to undergo a study on influence of television advertising on consumer choice of Beverages. 1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The following are the objectives of this work 1. To find out if television advertising has any influence on consumers choice of Beverages. 2. To find out whether there are other factors which can influence consumers on their choice of beverages. 3. To find out if television advertising brings about brand loyalty. 4. To find out the number of people that watch television advertising. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS With a view to obtaining answer to the problems of this research work, the following research questions are posed. 1. Does television advertising influence consumers choice of beverage? 2. Can other factors other than advertising influence brand loyalty? 3. Do consumers see brand name as synonymous with quality? 4. How often do masses view television advertising? 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The essence of television advertising is to influence consumers in decision making on their choice of beverages based on what they watch. This study is relevant for advertising agencies and the media who sees the need to receive and disseminate television advert to the public. Also, the study would help researchers and other scholars in ascertaining the influence or effects of television advertising on brand choice of audience it will help audience in the selection of products. 1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The effect of this work is targeted at determining the responses among television viewers concerning television advertising on consumer’s choice of beverage using carbury as a comparative study to be covered. Attempt will also be made to know the extent at which television station run such programmes. 1.7 LIMITATION OF THESTUDY The major limitations of this study is that the newness of the topics as assigned by the project supervisor posed a big challenge to the researcher. Lack of material such as textbook, journals, internet print-outs relevant to carry out the research and renovation of school library were banners to the study. Despite all these limitations, the research was successfully carried out. 1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFNITION OF TERMS The under listed terms are defined in with their usage in the study, influence, operationally, influence means the indirect power over something. It could be as a result of something, somebody or a group of people. Television: It is a piece of electrical equipment with a screen on which you can watch adverts with sound and moving pictures. Advertisement: It refers to any paid for or sponsored messages, which is disseminated through the media and aim at informing and persuading to purchase a product or services. Consumer: In this context, consumer refers to a person who buys and uses finished goods and services. Choice: This refers to the selection of something among possible alternatives. Beverages: Refers to any liquid that is drunk for food or pleasure. A drink other than waterCHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY This study is on the effects of unethical practices in advertising:(a case study of Vitafoam in Nigeria). Advertising as a concept, can be defined as a form of communication through the media about product, services, ideas, personalities or organizations, paid for by an identified sponsor writer Alide in Okunna (2002: 99). Bovee and Arens (1985) gave a more widely accepted definition of advertising as the non-personal communication of information, usually paid for any usually persuasive in nature about products (goods and services) or ideas by an identified sponsor through various media. It is an exciting, dynamic, and challenging enterprise. Its often a persuasive communication in that it tries to persuade the reader, the listener or the viewer to take to the sponsor’s own point of view and also to take some appropriate action. It is not personal or face to face communication, rather it is directed to a group of people. Advertising is also controlled, identifiable information and persuasion by means of mass communication media. Defined by Wright and Zeight (1982:10). Gillran Dyer says that in its simplest sense, the word “advertising” means drawing attention to something or notifying or informing somebody of something. According to the understanding of Advertising practitioners council of Nigeria (APCON) “advertising is a form of communication through the media about products, services or ideas, paid for by an identified sponsor”. The terms advertising was coined from the Latin word “advertere” which mean literally means to draw attention. This is when you are getting the evidence mind in a product, notifying or informing somebody/people of something. There is no doubt that advertising has brought prosperity to different countries of the world through different means. It has helped in speeding up the introduction of new inventions and has most importantly widened markets for mass-produced goods and services. Consumers of industrial goods and service and all over the world today enjoy the choice of a wide variety of such goods and services. Advertising has also been of immense benefit humanity and has contributed in no small measure rapid industrialization and expansion processes all over the world. Infact, advertising has contributed in making the world a better place to live in. Tracing the history of advertising however, it is evident that its practice is as old as man. Weppner (1979) in Okunna (2002: 85) reveals that advertising seems is be part of human nature evidenced since ancient times. Groom in his own view stated that “advertising” was first century AD and has been employed ever since in one form or another”. It has no specific date, any way, but Groom further maintains it as an instrument of marketing in the past 4000 B.C.E. Highlighting its existence in a Nigeria advertising has been part of commercial activities even before the arrival of whitemen remarks Abayomi in Okunna (2002: 86) Quoting Ogbodo (1990), Abayomi in Okunna pointed out the common practices in our locality like town criers do, hawking and display of available waves were the earliest method of advertising in Nigeria. This is still obtainable in the free-market these days as sellers cry above their voices to draw the attention of buyers to their waves. The introduction of modern advertising in Nigeria was made possible in 1859 by a newspaper called “Iwe Irohin”. It was owned by an English Reverend gentleman known as Henry Townsend. It was an eight page newspaper with four pages English version and four pages “Yoruba” version. This newspaper attracted a lot of readership, this creating space for advertisement on births, weddings and obituaries, vacances for houseboys and maids, church activities, ship schedules and other social events. Abayomi in Okunna (2002: 86) records that other newspaper such as the logos observer, the Eagle, the Lagos critic and others joined the music. The business of advertising enjoyed a great boast in the 1920s as notable companies such as Releigh Bicycle, PZ, lever Brothers, Cadbury, Ovaltine and others sprang up to patronize the services of West African Publicity (WAP) who provided advertising services like radio and television there was a considerable advancement in Radio/TV advertisement for over four decades. This began with the establishment of Western Nigeria Broadcasting Services (WNBS) and Western Nigeria Television (WNTN) by the defunct Western Religion, Okunna. At this point, it is pertinent to note that the practice of advertising in Nigeria has been legalized. The legalized was masterminded by APCON which was established by Decree 55 of 1988 amended by Decree 93 of 1992. The APCON, as produced by the code of advertising practice is charged with the responsibility of among other things. a). Determining who are advertisers b). Conducting examinations in the profession and, c). Regulating and controlling advertising in all this aspects and ramifications. The strict adherence to the provisions of this, code has really made advertising an interest oriented, fascinating and fantastic professions. The code of Advertising practice catalogued the essence of good advertising as outlined below. The codes provides that all advertisement in Nigeria should; a). Be legal, decent, honest, truthful and respectful of Nigeria’s culture. b). Be prepared with a high sense of social responsibility and should not show disregard for the interest of consumers and the wider Nigeria society. c). Conform to the principles of fair competition generally accepted in business and fair comment expected in human communication. d). Enhance public confidence in advertising. Unfortunately advertisers have chosen the unethical means of practicing this profession, neglected the good sense of advertising which revolves around social responsibility. In his words, Osunbiyi (1999:27) “advertising on the whole can be rumours, ie it can be deceptive and misleading. It can manipulate the “vulnerable psyche”. No doubt, advertising can be ruinous when some illegal advertisers make claims that are untruce about a product of services. As the consumers of such product testifies that the claims surrounding the product are not time, he automatically stops patronage. A more chronic effects of unethical practice of advertising by F.M. ODUAH (2017:285) is “passing off’, Passing off is a situation where a producer of a given product imitates, in a very close identify, the name, colour graphic design, size and shape of a product of that with a mark of quality, in order to enjoy plenty safes under the umbrella of the original product. It is a also a form of fraud in which a company tries to sell its own product by deceiving buyers into thinking it is another product. It is also making some false representation likely to induce a person to believe that the goods or service are those of another. Passing off-to misrepresent that one’s business is that of, or connected with another, in a way likely to cause damage. The implication of this ugly act is that is attracts loss of loyalty and patronage to the ‘main’ product. Hence, it affects the economic viability of such company and their product. This is obtainable in almost all products in the market such ones are TURA medicated soap which has another imitation product called TULA. Most people, especially the less lettered, who had been enlightened about tura soap quickly buy the ‘TULA’ with the mind frame that is the same thing as the original one. A product like Philip electric iron is not exempted in the passing off. It has imitators like Philip and Dhilip in radio. Other electronic gadgets like SONY products are plagued by such ones like sunny, sonic, sony-multi, sony prestige etc. In BYG products we now have GYC, BIC, VIC, BYG, all sounding almost the same, with the same design not qualitative, thus attracting bad name to the product. Talk of Bournvita food drink, Bomvita, Bovita, Bonveta etc have filled the market, making it difficult for customers to identify the real one. In fact, the list is in exhaustible. Over the years, vitafoam has been noted as a long lasting, soft and qualify mattress. It has been enjoying good name, hence its sustain ability in the market vitafoam is not left out in the “Passing off problem and its effects. In this work, the researcher has chosen VITAFOAM product of VITAFOAM NIGERIA PLC, Aba, for a case study. BRIEF HISTORY OF VITAFOAM NIGERIA PLC The foam company known as vitafoam Nigeria Plc today is an offshoot of Vita international limited, an internationally renowned products of all kinds of quality mattresses, cushions, pillows and upholstery sheetings. Vitafoam is less tossing and turning by evenly distributing the body weight and it create better blood circulation. Vitafoam Nigeria Plc was incorporated in Nigeria as a private company on 4th August, 1962. In 1963, the company opened its first factory at Ikeja, Lagos State for the production of latex form mattresses. The installation of its first urethane foam production plant in the Ikeja premises in 1966 paved way for the production of carpet underlay, fibre pillows, rigid urethane insulating materials and Vitabond Adhesive. Beside the Ikeja factory which is vitafoam Nigeria became the first foam manufacturing company in Nigeria to win the much converted international quality award NIS ISO 9002 certificate for the manufacture and sale of flexible and rigid poly urethane foam, fibre pillows and adhesive. Thus emphasizes their quality policy which states thus: Our policy at vitafoam Nigeria Plc is to continually provide goods and services and conform to international standard and surpass customers expectations at a price that represents value. Vitafoam battles with identical mattresses with such brand names as vitafoam, vitafoam, vitafoam, mitafoam, mitafoam, vitafosfoam, vitalinefoam etc. Worthy of note is that these imitators have contributed a lot to deceiving vitafoam customers to make wrong choices, thereby losing their loyalty to the company. As a parts of the provisions of APCON Code of Advertising Practice under medical products and treatments (4.7:12) “no advertisement should claim that the product, medicine or treatment advertised will promote sexual virility or be effective in treating sexual weakness, or habits associated with sexual excess or indulgence, or any ailment, illness or disease associated with these habits”. Even the pharmaceutical companies, these days make claims that a given drug can cure a member of diseases. But all are based on false claims. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM In the bid to maximize profit in the prevalent get rich-quick syndrome of some fraudulent entrepreneurs, some indulge in ill-practice of advertising. These unethical practice thus, endangers the well-being of the society and the Nigeria culture in particular. Absolute social responsibility to the customers of advertised goods and service is not ensured due to the fact that buyers are often miss led by chronic imitators. As a result of a lot of people haven fallen victim of the unethical practice of advertising known as passing off. This has been a serious problem facing the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON). The researcher in this, study, attempts to find in solution of these problems aforementioned and to particularly evaluate its effects to vitafoam, as a product and measures the company has put in place to correct the problem. 1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This research work aims at, 1. To bringing to limelight why illegal practice of advertising is on the increase. 2. To evaluate why some advertisers neglect the laid down ethics of advertising to pass through the “backdoor”. 3. To pin-point the set of advertisers who practice advertising unethically. 4. To look into the extent of effects unethical practice of advertising has caused. 5. To finally review whether APCON has devised other strict measures to penalize illegal practitioners. 1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY It is the belief of the researcher that this study would serve as immense useful purpose to its potential and prospective users. Students, scholars, consumers of goods and services policy makers, advertisers, advertising agencies and advertising researchers would stand to gain a lot from the facts contained in this work. This study upholds the high standard of an ideal advertising practice and therefore benefits the advertisers and feaming consumers of advertised goods and services. It serves as an eye opener to a good sense of advertising because the interest of the consumers is paramount. After close study of this research work, the evil effects of unethical practice of advertising will be drastically reduced, if not bought to an end. 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS To provide a framework for eliciting solution to the research problems, it is necessary that some research questions be formulated. A number of research questions are hereby given below for this reason. 1. Why do some advertisers neglect the ethics of advertising practice? 2. What effects have unethical practice of advertising caused? 3. Has APCON stipulated any measures to curb illegal advertising? 4. Does advertising lack professional application? 5. Why are the media involved in promoting illegal advertising? H3: APCON stipulated measures to curb illegal advertising. H4: Advertising lacks professional application. H0: Advertising does not lack professional application. H5: Media involves in promoting illegal advertising. Ho: Media do not involve in promoting illegal advertising. 1.6. CONCEPTUALLY AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS In the interest of the render, this writer wishes to outline and explain some key concepts used in this study. They are necessary to guide the reader to note the exact meaning of the words, expressions or phrases as used in the passage for easy understanding. Possibly, a word might have more than one meaning and this study taken operationalized the concept as far as this project work is concerned. Conceptually definition EXPLORING: Means to seek for something or after someone, to examine or investigate something systematically. UNETHICAL means not connected with beliefs and principles about what is right and wrong. It is not morally correct acceptable. It is means of promoting advertising. PRATICE it means that it is a way of doing something that is usual or expected way in a particular organization or situation. ADVERTISING it is a form of communication intend to persuade if viewers, readers or listeners to take some action. It is an exciting, dynamic, and challenging enterprise. Its often pervasive, fascinating and materialistic nature makes it an object of criticism and misunderstanding. Advertising is also a profession in which a body of experts in involved in the conceptualization, planning, creating, packaging and placing of advertisements on the media. NIGERIA-Nigeria is a country in West Africa sub-region within the African continent which got their independent in 1960. The evolution of Nigeria state was the creative ingenuity of the British Colonial Masters, especially, lord Lugard, who in 1914 amalgamented the Northern and Southern protectorates in the Nigeria area and thus created one of the largest countries in Africa called Nigeria. Nigerian is a geographical/entity area that contains many nations and state. VITA FOAM is defined as a means of tossing and turning by evenly distributing the body weight. It is a foam that we lay down on when sleeping for a comfortable relaxation after work, activity or when we are tired even feeling sleeping. Operational definition EXPLORING: According to British Dictionary, exploring means to seek for something or look after someone. Here, am going to seek for unethical practices of advertising in Vita Form Plc. UNETHICAL This is obtainable when there is a deviation from what is supposed to be. That is to say that one may have exhibited an unacceptable behaviour against ones organization or society where the person finds himself. Negative practice by vitafoam advertisers in Nigeria. To this end, unethical here means paying no regard to the laid down principles of advertising. PRACTICE When we say practice, if entails the practicality of what is said, as in theory and practice. In football, for instance, there is a time when the players are told what to do with the football. And they yet to perfect in those lectures by practicing what is taught them. ADVERTISING Advertising, like other promotional techniques informs, persuades and reminds. It can change consumer’s, beliefs, attitudes, images, and behaviour. But for advertising to be effective on a national level, enormous expenditures are required. Advertising is a giant industry. Advertising is an avenue of creating awareness of vitafoam in Nigeria. NIGERIA It is a geographical entity or area that we practice advertising. It is also a continent in African or a country in West Africa sub-region within the African continent were advertisers shows unethical practice. VITA FOAM It is a company which practices advertising of foam in Nigeria. A company under the Nigeria study of foam advert. 1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION It is important to point out that the scope of this study is to the vitafoam Nigeria Plc to determine the effects of unethical practice of advertising in Nigeria. The case study is a renowned company which produces quality mattresses, cushions, pillows and upholstery sheeting's. The researchers choice of this area as her scope of study is for her generate data capable of representing the needs find answers to the research questions. Also it is to use a company that has the same business and environmental characteristics with the within the target population. This is to a largest extent will lead to the validity and reliability of the instruments used for the study. Despite all these opportunities, a lot of obstacles were encounter by the researcher during the process of putting the project together. Among them are: a). Time Constraints: A limited time frame was allotted to the research for gathering of data and sourcing to research materials. b). Finance: Money was required at all stages of this study but could not gotten easily. Effort was made by the research to ensure that the research was carried out under conditions that led to scientifically valid conclusion despite the financial problem. 1.8 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY In this study, it is simply assumed that any study on the effects of unethical practice of advertising in Nigeria is a welcomed development. The assumptions of such effects are therefore based on a case study of Vitafoam Nigeria Plc. Therefore the research study assumes that i). Some advertisers neglect the ethics of advertising practice. ii). APCON has stipulated some measures to curb illegal advertising. iii). Advertising lack professional application. iv). The media are involved in promoting illegal advertising. v). Unethical practice in advertising cause some effects.This study is aimed at finding the Effect of Television Commercials on the Buying Habits of people in Enugu metropolis: A study of Omo and Elephant Blue Detergents. The study made use of survey (sampling) method of social scientific research which involves interviews using structured questionnaire. The sample size of 200 people was draw from different parts of Enugu metropolis. In distributing the questionnaire the researcher considered the respondent?s income level education level and ensured that they had television sets in their homes. In order to get a true reflection of the study group. Five hypotheses were formulated and addressed. The hypotheses validated or invalidated by the data presented and analyzed shows that television commercials affects the buying habits of Enugu metropolis people who are exposed to blue detergents? commercials tend to accept (buy) Omo blue detergent more than other brands and brand loyalty to blue detergents is not habitual rather it is influenced by commercials.
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